In most microbiological processes, foaming is a problem. It may be due to a component in the medium or some factor produced by the micro-organism. The most common cause of foaming is due to proteins in the medium, such as corn-steep liquor, Pharmamedia, peanut meal, soybean meal, yeast extract or meat extract (Schugerl, 1985). These proteins may denature at the air-broth interface and form a skin which does not rupture readily. The foaming can cause removal of cells from the medium which will lead to autolysis and the further release of microbial cell proteins will probably increase the stability of the foam. If uncontrolled, then numerous changes may occur and physical and biological problems may be created. These include reduction in the working volume of the fermenter due to oxygen-exhausted gas bubbles circulating in the system (Lee and Tyman, 1988), changes in bubble size, lower mass and heat transfer rates, invalid process data due to interference at sensing electrodes and incorrect monitoring and control (Vardar-Sukan, 1992). The biological problems include deposition of cells in upper parts of the fermenter, problems of sterile operation with the air filter exits of the fermenter becoming wet, and there is danger of microbial infection and the possibility of siphoning leading to loss of product.

Hall et al. (1973) have recognized five patterns of foaming in fermentations:

1. Foaming remains at a constant level through-out the fermentation. Initially it is due to the medium and later due to microbial activity.

2. A steady fall in foaming during the early part of the fermentation, after which it remains constant. Initially it is due to the medium but there are no later effects caused by the micro-organism.

3. The foaming falls slightly in the early stages of the fermentation then rises. There are very slight effects caused by the medium but the major effects are due to microbial activity.

4. The fermentation has a low initial foaming capacity which rises. These effects are due solely to microbial activity.

5. A more complex foaming pattern during the fermentation which may be a combination of two or more of the previously described patterns.

If excessive foaming is encountered there are three ways of approaching the problem:

1. To try and avoid foam formation by using a defined medium and a modification of some of the physical parameters (pH, temperature, aeration and agitation). This assumes that the foam is due to a component in the medium and not a metabolite.

2. The foam is unavoidable and antifoam should be used. This is the more standard approach.

3. To use a mechanical foam breaker. (See Chapter 7.)

Antifoams are surface active agents, reducing the surface tension in the foams and destabilizing protein films by (a) hydrophobic bridges between two surfaces, (b) displacement of the absorbed protein, and (c) rapid spreading on the surface of the film (Van't Riet and Van Sonsbeck, 1992). Other possible mechanisms have been discussed by Ghildyal et al. (1988), Lee and Tyman (1988) and Vardar-Sukan (1992).

An ideal antifoam should have the following proper-


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