Ao

(Change in input)

(Change in output)

Then

Kc may contain conversion units if there is an electrical input and a pressure output or vice versa.

Still Downcommer

Time-

- Output without control

. Proportional action

Integral action

Proportional + integral action Proportional + derivative action Proportional + integral + derivative action

Time-

- Output without control

. Proportional action

Integral action

Proportional + integral action Proportional + derivative action Proportional + integral + derivative action

Fig. 8.17. Typical controlled plant responses. 230

Still Downcommer

Fig. 8.18. A fermenter with a temperature-controlled heatine jacket. 8

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