## Batch Culture

Batch culture is a closed culture system which contains an initial, limited amount of nutrient. The inoculated cuture will pass through a number of phases, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1. After inoculation there is a period during which it appears that no growth takes place; this period is referred to as the lag phase and may be considered as a time of adaptation. In a commercial process the length of the lag phase should be reduced as much as possible and this may be achieved by using a suitable inoculum, as described in Chapter 6. Following a period during which the growth rate of the cells gradually increases, the cells grow at a constant, maximum, rate and this period is known as the log, or exponential, phase. The exponential phase may be described by the equation:

where x is the concentration of microbial biomass, t is time, in hours and fx is the specific growth rate, in hours-1. On integration equation (2.1) gives:

## Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

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