The control of pH may be extremely important if optimal productivity is to be achieved. A compound may be added to the medium to serve specifically as a buffer, or may also be used as a nutrient source. Many media are buffered at about pH 7.0 by the incorporation of calcium carbonate (as chalk). If the pH decreases the carbonate is decomposed. Obviously, phosphates which are part of many media also play an important role in buffering. However, high phosphate concentrations are critical in the production of many secondary metabolites (see Minerals section earlier in this chapter).

The balanced use of the carbon and nitrogen sources will also form a basis for pH control as buffering capacity can be provided by the proteins, peptides and amino acids, such as in corn-steep liquor. The pH may also be controlled externally by addition of ammonia or sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid (Chapter 8).

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