Enzyme Treatment

There are a number of enzymes which hydrolyse

Fig. 10.23. Simplified drawing of the Netzsch model LM-20 mill (Rehacek and Schafer, 1977): A, cylidrical grinding vessel with cooling jacket; B, agitator with cooled shaft and discs; C, annular vibrating slot operator; D, variable-speed-drive motor; 1 and 2, product inlet and outlet; 3 and 4, agitator cooling inlet and outlet; 5 and 6, vessel-cooling inlet and outlet.

Fig. 10.23. Simplified drawing of the Netzsch model LM-20 mill (Rehacek and Schafer, 1977): A, cylidrical grinding vessel with cooling jacket; B, agitator with cooled shaft and discs; C, annular vibrating slot operator; D, variable-speed-drive motor; 1 and 2, product inlet and outlet; 3 and 4, agitator cooling inlet and outlet; 5 and 6, vessel-cooling inlet and outlet.

specific bonds in cell walls of a limited number of micro-organisms. Enzymes shown to have this activity include lysozyme and enzyme extracts from leucocytes, Streptomyces spp., Micromonospora spp. Penicillium spp., Trichoderma spp., and snails. Although this is probably one of the most gentle methods available, unfortunately it is relatively expensive and the presence of the enzyme(s) may complicate futher downstream purification processes. The use of immobilized lysozyme has been investigated by a number of workers and may provide the solution to such problems (Crapisi et al, 1993). Chemical and enzymic methods for the release of intracellular products have not been used widely on a large scale, with the exception of lysozyme. However, their potential for the selective release of product and that they often yield a cleaner lysate mean that they are potentially invaluable tools in the recovery of fermentation products (Andrews and Asenjo, 1987; Andrews et al., 1990). Enzymes may also be used as a pretreatment to partially hydrolyse cell walls prior to cell disruption by mechanical methods.

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