11. Driers at 50-60oC

Fig. 10.4. Recovery and purification of citric acid (Sodesk et al., 1981).

citric acid and micrococcal nuclease are given in Figs 10.2, 10.3, 10.4 and 10.5, to illustrate the range of techniques used in microbiological recovery processes. A series of comprehensive flow sheets for alcohols, organic acids, antibiotics, carotenoids, polysaccharides, intra- and extra-cellular enzymes, single-cell proteins and vitamins have been produced by Atkinson and Mavituna (1991). Other reviews on separation and purification are available for penicillin (Swartz, 1979), amino acids (Samejima, 1972), enzymes (Aunstrup, 1979; Darbyshire, 1981), single-cell protein (Hamer, 1979) and polysaccharides (Pace and Righelato, 1980; Smith and Pace, 1982). In the selection of processes for the recovery of biological products it should always be understood that recovery and production are interlinked, and that good recovery starts in the fermentation by the selection of, amongst other factors, the correct media and time of harvesting.

The recovery and purification of many compounds may be achieved by a number of alternative routes. The decision to follow a particular route involves comparing the following factors to determine the most appropriate under a given set of circumstances:

Capital costs.

Processing costs.

Throughput requirements.

Yield potential.

Product quality.

Technical expertise available.

1. Supernatant; 400 dm3 pH 8.8

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