Class 3 microbiological cabinet for fermenters of up to 50 dm3. Buckland (1992) has stated that it now costs as much to build a 3 m3 facility for a recombinant protein which will need extensive containment provisions as for a 2000 m3 scale facility for an antibiotic. In a containment facility only 30% may be usable space. The remaining 70% of the building is needed to accommodate and service the facility.

Reisman (1993) has stressed the need for the correct level of containment. More stringent requirements may exist in a laboratory than are strictly needed. The same high level of containment in a production facility may be onerous, costly and unnecessary. Containment needs should be determined jointly by a group of appropriately trained staff.

The designing of vessels which can be converted for multi-use (Reisman, 1993) may have economic advantages, but descriptions of such vessels except at pilot scale are not common (Hambleton et al., 1991).

The life of a proposed plant has to be predicted. MacLennan (1976) has estimated the life of a single-cell protein plant to be 10 years. This is probably the lower limit. Hamer (1979) claimed that a planned SCP plant life of 15 years is typical. Acetone and butanol have been produced in 25-year-old vessels (Spivey, 1978), while in long-established breweries in Great Britain, equipment of 50 to 100 years old is still used.

Allowance must be made for the service provisions for a fermentation process. In a moderate sized antibiotic plant, there may be the need for the provision of 5 tonnes h"1 of steam, 5000 kW h 1 of electricity, 57,000 m3 h 1 of compressed air and 200,000 dm3 h 'of water (Hastings and Jackson, 1965). When producing 1 tonne of acetic acid, 480 m3 of cooling water, 10 m3 of process water, 12 tonnes of steam and 570 kW of electricity would be utilized (Pape, 1977).

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Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

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