Should be heat sterilizable.

The following compounds which meet most of these requirements have been found to be most suitable in different fermentation processes (Solomons, 1969; Ghildyal et al., 1988):

1. Alcohols; stearyl and octyl decanol.

2. Esters.

3. Fatty acids and derivatives, particularly glyc-erides, which include cottonseed oil, linseed oil, soy-bean oil, olive oil, castor oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and cod liver oil.

4. Silicones.

5. Sulphonates.

6. Miscellaneous; Alkaterge C, oxazaline, poly-pro-pylene glycol.

These antifoams are generally added when foaming occurs during the fermentation. Because many anti-foams are of low solubility they need a carrier such as lard oil, liquid paraffin or castor oil, which may be metabolized and affect the fermentation process (Solomons, 1967).

Unfortunately, the concentrations of many anti-foams which are necessary to control fermentations will reduce the oxygen-transfer rate by as much as 50%; therefore antifoam additions must be kept to an absolute minimum. There are also other antifoams which will increase the oxygen-transfer rate (Ghildyal et al., 1988). If the oxygen-transfer rate is severely affected by antifoam addition then mechanical foam breakers may have to be considered as a possible alternative. Vardar-Sukan (1992) concluded that foam control in industry is still an empirical art. The best method for a particular process in one factory is not necessarily the best for the same process on another site. The design and operating parameters of a fermenter may affect the properties and quantity of foam formed.

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Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

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