An operator must enter measured values into the control system if the data is to be used in process control.
3. Off-line sensor. The sensor is not part of the fermentation equipment. The measured value cannot be used directly for process control. An operator is needed for the actual measurement (e.g. medium analysis or dry weight sample) and for entering the measured values into the control system for process control.
When evaluating sensors to use in measurement and control it is important to consider response time, gain, sensitivity, accuracy, ease and speed of calibration, stability, reliability, output signal (continuous or discontinuous), materials of construction, robustness, sterilization, maintenance, availability to purchase and cost (Flynn, 1983, 1984; Royce, 1993).
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