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Note * Included in 29.9% for maintenance and operating supplies.

flncluded in 9% for labour and supervision. 10.2% for laboratory costs included.

Note * Included in 29.9% for maintenance and operating supplies.

flncluded in 9% for labour and supervision. 10.2% for laboratory costs included.

ing chemical engineering costing principles. Accurate detailed costing of industrial fermentations are rarely published.

Government aid or taxation can determine the viability of many fermentation processes. Support in construction of plant, development and production programmes of acetone-butanol and penicillin during wartime led to production of compounds at an earlier stage than might normally be regarded as economically feasible (Hastings, 1971, 1978). Agricultural-aid programmes in the United States of America made available low-cost supplies of grain and potatoes and enabled fermentations to be operated when they would not have been economically viable in a free market (Perlman, 1970). In 1980 carbohydrates as molasses or cane juice could be obtained in sugar-producing countries at half the price of molasses in the European Economic Community (Meers, 1980) and differences in starch prices between the EEC and the U.S.A. were about 40% (Gray, 1987). This price differential of carbon substrates discouraged investment and further research in the EEC. Policy changes were made to allow fermentation companies within the EEC to buy sugar and starch based substrates at a lower price to enable them to compete on a world-wide scale.

Some very useful reviews of process economics have been produced for penicillin G (Swartz, 1979), gibberel-lic acid (Vass and Jefferys, 1979), biomass from natural gas (Hamer, 1979), biomass from whey (Meyrath and Beyer, 1979), biomass from waste carbohydrates (Mateles, 1975), biomass from cane and coffee process ing by-products (Rolz, 1975), 6-aminopenicillanic acid (Harrison and Gibson, 1984), evaluation of 11 alternative ethanol fermentation processes (Maiorella et al, 1984), tissue plasminogen activator (Datar et al, 1993), primary separation steps (Datar, 1986) and chromatography (Sofer and Nystrom, 1989). A number of general reviews of fermentation economics are also available (Whitaker, 1973; Nyiri and Charles, 1977; Bartholomew and Reisman, 1979; Stowell and Bateson, 1984; Bailey and Ollis, 1986; Hacking, 1986; Kalk and Langlykke, 1986; Reisman, 1988; Atkinson and Mavituna, 1991).

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Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

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