Fig. 7.53. Schematic diagram of a cyclone column fermenter. (i) cyclone column; (II) circulating pump; (III) recirculating limb (Dawson, 1974).
the support and are growing well as a thin film, fresh medium is added at the top of the column and the fermented medium is removed from the bottom of the column. The best known example is the vinegar generator, in which ethanol was oxidized to acetic acid by strains of Acetobacter supported on beech shavings; the first recorded use was in 1670 (Mitchell, 1926). More recently, packed towers have been used for sewage and effluent treatment (Noble et al., 1964). In treatment of gas liquor, a column was packed to a height 7.9 m with 'Dowpac', a polystyrene derivative. The main advantages compared with other methods of effluent treatment being its simplicity of operation and a saving in land because of the increased surface areas within the column. Other possible applications with immobilized cells are now being investigated.
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