Bacillus aurantinus


B. licheniformis


B. licheniformis


Streptomyces alboniger


S. antibioticus

Cephamycin C

S. clavuligerus


S. fradiae


S. graphalus


S. griseus


S. kanamyceticus


S. niueus


S. sioyaensis

The main product of a fermentation process will often determine the choice of carbon source, particularly if the product results from the direct dissimilation of it. In fermentations such as ethanol or single-cell protein production where raw materials are 60 to 77% of the production cost, the selling price of the product will be determined largely by the cost of the carbon source (Whitaker, 1973; Moo-Young, 1977). It is often part of a company development programme to test a range of alternative carbon sources to determine the yield of product and its influence on the process and the cost of producing biomass and/or metabolite. This enables a company to use alternative substrates, depending on price and availability in different locations, and remain competitive. Up to ten different carbon sources have been or are being used by Pfizer Ltd for an antibiotic production process depending on the geographical location of the production site and prevailing economics (Stowell, 1987).

The purity of the carbon source may also affect the choice of substrate. For example, metallic ions must be removed from carbohydrate sources used in some citric acid processes (Karrow and Waksman, 1947; Woodward et al, 1949; Smith et al., 1974).

The method of media preparation, particularly sterilization, may affect the suitability of carbohydrates for individual fermentation processes. It is often best to sterilize sugars separately because they may react with ammonium ions and amino acids to form black nitro


Rhodes (1963);

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Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

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