Kominek (1972)


Kimura (1967)

gen containing compounds which will partially inhibit the growth of many micro-organisms. Starch suffers from the handicap that when heated in the sterilization process it gelatinizes, giving rise to very viscous liquids, so that only concentrations of up to 2% can be used without modification (Solomons, 1969).

The choice of substrate may also be influenced by government legislation. Within the European Economic Community (EEC), the use of beet sugar and molasses is encouraged, and the minimum price controlled. The quantity of imported cane sugar and molasses is carefully monitored and their imported prices set so that they will not be competitive with beet sugar. If the world market sugar price is very low then the EEC fermentation industry will be at a disadvantage unless it receives realistic subsidies (Coombs, 1987). Refunds for a defined list of products are available in the EEC when sugar and starch are used as substrates. Legislation for recognition of new products is time consuming and manufacturers may be uncertain as to whether they would benefit from carbon substrate refunds. This uncertainty has meant that some manufacturers might prefer to site factories for new products outside the EEC (Gray, 1987).

Local laws may also dictate the substrates which may be used to make a number of beverages. In the Isle of Man, the Manx Brewers Act (1874) forbids the use of ingredients other than malt, sugar and hops in the brewing of beer. There are similar laws applying to beer production in Germany. Scotch malt whisky may be made only from barley malt, water and yeast. Within France, many wines may be called by a certain name only if the producing vineyard is within a limited geographical locality.

Examples of commonly used carbon sources

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