A diagrammatic representation of an internal feedback system is shown in Fig. 2.8a. Effluent is removed from the vessel in two streams, one filtered, resulting in a dilute effluent stream (and, thus, a concentration of biomass in the reactor) and one unfiltered. The proportion of the outflow leaving via the filter and the effectiveness of the filter then determines the degree of feedback. The flow rate of incoming medium is designated F (dm3 h~1) and the fraction of the outflow which is not filtered is designated c; thus the outflow rate of the unfiltered stream is cF and that of the
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