The majority of fermentation processes are aerobic and, therefore, require the provision of oxygen. If the stoichiometry of respiration is considered, then the oxidation of glucose may be represented as: C6H1206 + 602 = 6H20 + 6C02

Thus, 192 grams of oxygen are required for the complete oxidation of 180 grams of glucose. However, both components must be in solution before they are available to a micro-organism and oxygen is approximately 6000 times less soluble in water than is glucose (a fermentation medium saturated with oxygen contains approximately 7.6 mg dm"3 of oxygen at 30°C). Thus, it is not possible to provide a microbial culture with all the oxygen it will need for the complete oxidation of the glucose (or any other carbon source) in one addition. Therefore, a microbial culture must be supplied with oxygen during growth at a rate sufficient to satisfy the organisms' demand.

The oxygen demand of an industrial fermentation process is normally satisfied by aerating and agitating the fermentation broth. However, the productivity of many fermentations is limited by oxygen availability and, therefore, it is important to consider the factors which affect a fermenter's efficiency in supplying microbial cells with oxygen. This chapter considers the requirement for oxygen in fermentation processes, the quantification of oxygen transfer and the factors which will influence the rate of oxygen transfer into solution.

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