Rotating-disc contactors have been used in effluent treatment (Chapter 11). They utilize a growing microbial film on slow rotating discs to oxidize the effluent. Anderson and Blain (1980) have used the same principle to construct small fermenters of up to 40-dm3 working volume. A range of filamentous fungi, including species of Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicil-liurrt, could be grown on the polypropylene discs. It has been possible to obtain yields of 80 g dm-3 of citric acid from A. niger using this design of fermenter.
Fig. 7.52. Gas entraîner nozzles of deep-jet fermenters (Reuss, 1992).
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