Microbial enzymes

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Enzymes have been produced commercially from plant, animal and microbial sources. However, microbial enzymes have the enormous advantage of being able to be produced in large quantities by established fermentation techniques. Also, it is infinitely easier to improve the productivity of a microbial system compared with a plant or animal one. Furthermore, the advent of recombinant DNA technology has enabled enzymes of animal origin to be synthesized by microorganisms (see Chapter 3). The uses to which microbial enzymes have been put are summarized in Table 1.1, from which it may be seen that the majority of applications are in the food and related industries. Enzyme production is closely controlled in micro-organisms and in order to improve productivity these controls may

Table 1.1. Commercial applications of enzymes (Modified from Boing, 1982)

Industry Baking and milling

Brewing

Cereals

Chocolate and cocoa Coffee

Confectionery Corn syrup

Application

Enzyme

Source

Dairy

Eggs, dried Fruit juices

Laundry Leather Meat

Pharmaceutical

Photography Protein hydrolysates Soft drinks

Textiles Vegetables

Reduction of dough viscosity, acceleration of fermentation, increase in loaf volume, improvement of crumb softness and maintenance of freshness Improvement of dough texture, reduction of mixing time, increase in loaf volume Mashing Chillproofmg

Improvement of fine filtration Precooked baby foods, breakfast foods Manufacture of syrups Coffee bean fermentation Preparation of coffee concentrates

Manufacture of soft centre candies Manufacture of high-maltose syrups Production of low D.E. syrups Production of glucose from corn syrup Manufacture of fructose syrups Manufacture of protein hydrolysates Stabilization of evaporated milk Production of whole milk concentrates, icecream and frozen desserts Curdling milk Glucose removal Clarification Oxygen removal Detergents Dehairing, baiting Tenderization Digestive aids Anti-blood clotting Various clinical tests Recovery of silver from spent film Manufacture Stabilization

Desizing of fabrics Preparation of purees and soups

Amylase

Protease

Amylase

Protease

/3-Glucanase

Amylase

Amylase

Pectinase

Pectinase, hemicellulase

Invertase, pectinase

Amylase

Amylase

Amyloglycosidase Glucose isomerase Protease Protease Lactase

Protease Glucose oxidase Pectin ases Glucose oxidase Protease, lipase Protease Protease

Amylase, protease

Streptokinase

Numerous

Protease

Proteases

Glucose oxidase, catalase Amylase

Pectinase, amylase, cellulase

Fungal

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal/bacterial Fungal/bacterial Fungal/bacterial Fungal

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal

Fungal

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal

Bacterial

Fungal

Bacterial

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal

Yeast

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal

Fungal

Fungal

Bacterial

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal

Fungal

Bacterial

Fungal/bacterial

Bacterial

Fungal/bacterial

Fungal

Bacterial Fungal have to be exploited or modified. Such control systems as induction may be exploited by including inducers in the medium (see Chapter 4), whereas repression control may be removed by mutation and recombination techniques. Also, the number of gene copies coding for the enzyme may be increased by recombinant DNA techniques. Aspects of strain improvement are discussed in Chapter 3.

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  • barbara perkins
    How to increase the production of microbial enzymes)?
    8 years ago

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