Proportional Control

Proportional control can be explained as follows: the change in output of the controller is proportional to the input signal produced by the environmental change (commonly referred to as error) which has been detected by a sensor.

Temperature

Maximum

Maximum

Minimum

Minimum

Time

Fig. 8.15. Oscillatory pattern of a simple two-position valve or switch.

Time

Fig. 8.16. Oscillatory pattern of the temperature of a domestic water tank (no water being drawn off) using ON/OFF control of the heating element.

_ Output without control

Proportional action

----Integral action

------Proportional + derivative action

---------Proportional + integral + derivative action

Mathematically it can be expressed by the following equation:

where M = output signal,

M0 = controller output signal when there is no

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