S

Retentate

Filtration membrane pack

Pump

Fig. 10.14b. Major components of a cross-flow filtration system. 286

Filtrate membrane, primarily by adsorption onto the membrane's surface, causing a rapid loss in efficiency. This can be controlled by modification of the membrane or media formulation in particular by reducing the use of antifoaming agents. Lee et al. (1993) have shown that the pulses of air injected into the flow to a cross-flow filter increase the shear rate at the membrane surface reducing the effects of membrane fouling.

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