High frequency vibration ( ~ 20 kHz) at the tip of an ultrasonication probe leads to cavitation, and shock waves thus produced cause cell disruption. The method can be very effective on a small scale, but a number of serious drawbacks make it unsuitable for large-scale operations. Power requirements are high, there is a large heating effect so cooling is needed, the probes have a short working life and are only effective over a short range. Continuous laboratory sonicators with hold-up volumes of around 10 cm3 have been shown to be effective (James et al., 1972).

Chemical methods

Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

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