Valves attached to fermenters and ancillary equipment are used for controlling the flow of liquids and gases in a variety of ways. The valves may be:
1. Simple ON/OFF valves which are either fully open or fully closed.
2. Valves which provide coarse control of flow rates.
3. Valves which may be adjusted very precisely so that flow rates may be accurately controlled.
4. Safety valves which are constructed in such a way that liquids or gases will flow in only one direction.
When making the decision as to which valves to use in the design and construction of a fermenter it is essential to consider the following points:
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