R. oligosporus produced different volatile profiles in barley and soybean and different strains of R. oligosporus produced similar profiles in similar substrates. The mushroom flavour compounds of soybean tempeh, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, were present in soybean, and were not produced by R. oligosporus (II)
Soybean has a beany flavour, probably due to the production of the volatiles hexanal and hexanol (Shogren et al., 2003), while soybean tempeh often has a mushroom flavour (Nout & Rombouts, 1990). This mushroom flavour is generally attributed to the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone (NoelSuberville et al., 1996). Whitaker (1978) suggested that the disappearance of the beany flavour is probably due to the proteolysis of those proteins to which the beany flavour compounds are bound. Nout & Rombouts (1990) hypothesized that the lack of beany flavour in tempeh was due to the result of inactivation of the lipo-oxygenases associated with the formation of such flavours during the boiling stage. Surprisingly, mushroom flavour compounds were not produced by microbial fermentation (II), but are present in soybean (Boue et al., 2003) together with beany smell compounds (II). The increased mushroom flavour after tempeh fermentation was probably due to the reduction or elimination of beany...
Another reason, perhaps, why tempeh has attracted interest in the United States relates to its versatile applications and organoleptic properties. In its raw state, tempeh has a bland, mushroom-like flavor. However, cooking transforms this plain-tasting material into a pleasant, nutty, flavorful product. If one can get past the fact that tempeh consists entirely of moldy beans, its flavor, especially when it is sauteed or fried, resembles that of cooked or roasted meat (sort of). After all, tempeh and muscle protein (i.e., meat) both derive much of their flavor from the Maillard reaction products that result when amino acids and reducing sugars are heated at high temperature.The lipid component of soy beans may also serve as a precursor for meaty flavor and aroma development. Finally, the development of a tem-
The most abundant volatile compounds produced by R. oligosporus were ethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol on malt extract agar and barley, and 2-butanone on soybeans. The mushroom odor compounds, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, were only present in soybean and soybean tempeh. Different strains of R. oligosporus produced similar volatile profiles in similar substrates. LAB did not influence the volatile production by R. oligosporus.
Results of aldehyde analysis show that Mediterranean sausages obviously contain higher amounts of 6-10 carbon straight-chain aldehydes, with a marked difference for hexanal, a typical product of linoleic acid oxidation (6,107,108). They have flavor thresholds of 5 to 60 ppb, and flavors are variously described as green, metallic, fruity, fatty, and rancid (68). Ketones from 2-pentanone to 2-nonanone with fruity, musty, cheesy odours and alcohols (saturated and unsaturated) from 6 to 8 carbon atoms with fruity, green, and mushroom odors are found in higher amounts in southern products than in northern ones (107109).
A higher cell growth rate and a higher productivity of IPS and GA were reached under higher 02 supply. The positive response of a-PGM activity and EPS accumulation by G. lucidum to sugar feeding was demonstrated. A remarkable improvement of both the production and productivity of EPS was successfully achieved by lactose feeding. The results are considered useful for the regulation and optimization of the mushroom cultures for simultaneous,
Post-fermentation problems with mold are usually due to contaminated cork closures. Cork, the bark from the cork tree, can contribute so-called cork taints. This is one of the most serious defects in bottled wine and one which has attracted wide attention among cork producers, wineries, and consumers (Box 10-7).The defect is now thought to occur as a result of growth of various fungi (including Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Trichoderma). Visible mold growth is rarely evident (those corks would not be used), so cork taints occur earlier in the cork making process, when exposure to fungi is common. These fungi then produce musty- or mushroom-smelling compounds that diffuse into the wine after the corks are inserted into the bottles.Wine corks can now be treated to remove the offending taint. However, there has been a strong trend toward the use of plastic and other alternative wine enclosures, the use of which may significantly reduce the incidence of cork-related defects.
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