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perfect condensation. To prevent this, a cold water supply pipe may be connected to the bottom of C making a connection at the top of C for an over flow of the warmed up water. By this means the lowest part of the worm will be kept sufficiently cool to make a rapid condensation of the vapors.

The boiler A can be made in two parts; the upper part fitting into the lower part snugly at

FIG. 6.—A Simple Still

d. The pipe from the upper part fitting the worm snugly at e. This will enable the operator to thoroughly cleanse the boiler before putting in a new lot of liquor. The joints at e and d should be luted with dough formed by mixing the flour with a small portion of salt and moistening with water. This is thoroughly packed at the junctions of the parts to prevent the escape of steam or vapor.

Fig. 7 shows such a Still as manufactured by the Geo. L. Squier Mfg. Co., Buffalo, N. Y.

In an apparatus of this kind, the vapors of alcohol and water are condensed together. But if instead of filling the condenser C with cold water, it is kept at a temperature of 176°F. the greater part of the water-vapor will be condensed while the alcohol, which boils at 172.4°F. passes through the coil uncondensed. If therefore the

FIG. 7.—Simple Direct-Heated Still. water be condensed and collected separately in this manner, and the alcoholic vapors be conducted into another cooler kept at temperature below 172.4°F., the alcohol will be obtained in a much higher state. of concentration than it would be by a process of simple distillation.

Supposing, again, that vapors containing but a small quantity of alcohol are brought into contact with an alcoholic liquid of lower temperature than

FIG. 7.—Simple Direct-Heated Still. water be condensed and collected separately in this manner, and the alcoholic vapors be conducted into another cooler kept at temperature below 172.4°F., the alcohol will be obtained in a much higher state. of concentration than it would be by a process of simple distillation.

Supposing, again, that vapors containing but a small quantity of alcohol are brought into contact with an alcoholic liquid of lower temperature than the vapors themselves, and in very small quantity, the vapor of water will be partly condensed, so that the remainder will be richer in alcohol than it was previously. But the water, in condensing, converts into vapor a portion of the spirit contained in the liquid interposed, so that the uncondensed vapors passing away are still further enriched by this means. Here, then, are the results obtained; the alcoholic vapors are strengthened, firstly, by the removal of a portion of the water wherewith they were mixed; and then by the admixture with them of the vaporized spirit placed in the condenser. By the employment of some such method as this, a very satisfactory yield of spirit may be obtained, both with regard to quality, as it is extremely concentrated, and to the cost of production, since the simple condensation of the water is made use of to convert the spirit into vapor without the necessity of having recourse to fuel. The construction of every variety of distilling apparatus now in use is based upon the above principles.

A sectional view of another simple form of still is shown in Pig. 8; V is a wooden vat having a tight fitting cover a, through the center of which a hole has been cut. The wide end of a goose neck of copper pipe g is securely fitted over this aperture, the smaller end of this pipe passes through the cover of the retort R extending nearly to the bottom; f is the steam supply pipe from boiler; M the rectifier consisting of a cylindrical copper

DISTILLING APPARATUS. 37

vessel containing a number of small vertical pipes surrounded by a cold water jacket; o the inlet for the cold water which circulates around these small pipes, discharging at n; the pipes in M have a common connection to a pipe p, which connects the rectifier with coil in cooler C; 5 is a pipe to the receptacle for receiving the distillate; u cold

Distillation Retorts And Rectifier
FIG. 8.—Simple Still, with Rectifier.

water supply pipe to cooler, and W discharge for warmed-up water, k discharge for refuse wash in vat V.

The operation is as follows: The vat V is nearly filled with fermented mash and retort R with weak distillate from a previous operation. Steam is then turned into the pipe f discharging near the bottom of the vat V and working up through the mash. This heats up the mash and the vapors escape up g over into R where they warm up the weak distillate. The vapors thus enriched rise into M, where a good percentage of the water vapor is distilled, that is, condensed by the cold water surrounding the small pipes. The vapor then passes over through p into the coil, where it is liquified and from whence it passes by pipe 5 into the receiver. The cold water for cooling both M and C can be turned on as soon as the apparatus has become thoroughly heated up.

The stills in use to-clay in many parts of the South for the production of whiskey are quite as simple as those above described, and some for the making of "moonshine" liquor are more so.

The first distilling apparatus for the production of strong alcohol on an industrial scale was invented by Edward Adam, in the year 1801. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 9, in which A is a still to contain the liquor placed over a suitable heater. The vapors were conducted by a tube into the egg-shaped vessel B, the tube reaching nearly to the bottom; they then passed out by another tube into a second egg C; then, in some cases, into a third, not shown in the figure, and finally into the worm D, and through a cock at G into the receiver. The liquor condensed in the first egg is stronger than that in the still, while that found in the second and third is stronger than either. The spirit which is condensed at the bottom of the worm is of a very high degree of strength. At the bottom of each of the eggs, there is a tube connected with the still, by which the concentrated liquors may be run back into A for redistillation after the refuse liquor from the first distill has been run off.

In the tube is a stop-cock a, by regulating which, enough liquor could be kept in the eggs to cover the lower ends of the entrance pipes, so that the alcoholic vapors were not only deprived of water by the cooling which they underwent in passing through the eggs, but were also mixed with fresh spirit obtained from the vaporization of the liquid remaining in the bottom of the eggs, in the manner already described.

Adam's arrangement fulfilled, therefore, the two conditions necessary for the production of strong spirit inexpensively; but unfortunately it had also

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