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serious defects. The temperature of the egg could not be maintained at a constant standard, and the bubbling of the vapors through the liquor inside created too high a pressure. It was, however, a source of great profit to its inventor for a long period, although it gave rise to many imitations and improvements.

The operation of distilling is often carried on in the apparatus represented in Fig. 10. It is termed the Patent Simplified Distilling Apparatus; it was originally invented by Corty, but it has since undergone much improvement. A is the body of the still, into which the wash is put; B the head of the still; c c c three copper plates fitted in the upper part of the three boxes; these are kept cool by a supply of water from the pipe E, which is distributed on the top of the boxes by means of the pipes G G G. The least pure portion of the ascending vapors is condensed as it reaches the lowest plate, and falls back, and the next portion as it reaches the second plate, while the purest and lightest vapors pass over the goose-neck, and are condensed in the worm, The temperature of the plates is regulated by altering the flow of water by means of the cock F. For the purpose of cleaning the apparatus, a jet of steam or water may be introduced at a. A regulator is affixed at the screw-joint H, at the lower end of the worm, which addition is considered an important part of the improvement. The part of the apparatus marked I becomes filled soon after the operation has commenced, the end of the other pipe K is immersed in water in the vessel L. The advantage claimed for this apparatus is that the condensation proceeds in a partial vacuum, and that there is therefore a great saving in fuel. One of these stills, having a capacity of 400 gallons, is said to work off four or five charges during a day of 12 hours, furnishing a spirit 35 per cent. over-proof.

Fig. 11 represents a double still which was at one time largely employed in the colonies. It is simply an addition of the common still A to the patent still B. Prom time to time the contents of B are run off into A, those of A being drawn off as dunder, the spirit from A passing over into B. Both stills are heated by the same fire; and it is said that much fine spirit can be obtained by

Fio. 10.--Corty's Simplified Distilling Apparatus.

Fig. 11 represents a double still which was at one time largely employed in the colonies. It is simply an addition of the common still A to the patent still B. Prom time to time the contents of B are run off into A, those of A being drawn off as dunder, the spirit from A passing over into B. Both stills are heated by the same fire; and it is said that much fine spirit can be obtained by their use at the expense of a very inconsiderable amount of fuel.

Compound Distillation. Where stills of the form shown in Figs. 6 and 8 are used the alcohol obtained is weak. Hence it is necessary that the distillate be again itself distilled, the operation being

repeated a number of times. In the better class of still, however, compound distillation is performed the mash is heated by the hot vapors rising from the still and the vapors are condensed and run back into the still greatly enriched.

The principle of compound distillation is well shown in Dorn's apparatus, Fig. 12. This consists

of a still or boiler A having a large dome-shaped head, on the interior faces of which the alcoholic vapors will condense. Thus only enriched vapors will pass up through goose-neck B to the mash heater D. C is a worm the end of which passes out to a compartment E through an inclined partition F. From the compartment E a pipe e leads into the still A. An agitator H is used for stirring the mash, so that it may be uniformly heated. A pipe d provided with a cock allows the mash to be drawn off into the still A. From the highest point of the compartment E a pipe M leads to condensing coil K in a tub J of cold water, having a draw-off cock I.

At the exit end of the condensing worm K the tube is bent in a U form as at L, one arm of which has a curved open-ended continuation n, through which the air in the worm is expelled. The other arm opens into an inverted jar l containing a hydrometer, for indicating the strength of the spirit. The spirits pass off through m into a receiver.

In operation the mash is admitted into the heater D through G until the heating tank is nearly filled. A certain amount of mash is then allowed to run into the still A through the pipe d. The cock in d is closed and the fire lighted.

The vapors from the still are condensed in worm C and the condensed liquid drops down into compartment E. Any vapor passing through B and C so highly heated as to be uncondensed in coils C passes through the layer of liquid in compartment E, collects in the highest portion of the compartment and passes through pipe M to coil K where it is entirely liquefied. If the liquid in E rises beyond a certain level it passes through pipe e back to the still. Any vapors which may collect in the upper part of D pass into the small bent pipe opening into the first coil of worm C. Water for rinsing the heater D may be drawn through cock s from the tub J and warm water for rinsing the still, through pipe d from the heater.

Another form of compound still is shown in Fig. 13. In this the still S is divided into an upper and lower compartment by a concave-convex partition d, having at its crown an upwardly extending tube t from which projects side tubes p. A pipe P opens above and extends from tube t. C is the mash heater and condenser. Connected to the head of the still is a pipe T through which the vapors pass to a condensing coil f formed on the wall of the heater C. At its bottom the coil f extends out of the heater, through the water tub W and out to receiver as at F. In the head of this heater is a valve V whereby any vapors which may arise from the heated mash are conducted by pipe U to T. The heater C is filled through funnel Y and the mash is admitted to the still through pipe b having cock a. The pipe P extends to the upper part of the water tub W and then downward to the bottom, where it again enters the still.

An opening in the partition d is controlled by a valve G which allows liquid in the upper compartment of the still to flow into the lower. Spent mash may be drawn off through c and the height of the water in tub W by regulated by pipe Z.

The operation of this still is similar to Dorn's still. Mash is put into C and a quantity of it is led into the upper compartment of the still and into the lower compartment by valve G. This valve is closed and the fire started. The vapors pass up ward through t. If they are quite highly vaporized they pass onward up P, are condensed in their passage through the cool water tub and return as liquid to the upper compartment where they are further heated.

The liquid in the upper compartment is thus constantly enriched and the vapor therefrom passes out through pipe T into condensing coils

FIG. 14.—Compound Direct Fire Still.

f where it is condensed into spirit and passes off by F.

The funnel tube Y acts also as a means of warning the attendant as to the condition of the mash. If it is too high in level and the pressure of vapor in the heater if too great, liquid will be forced out of Y; if on the contrary, the mash sinks below the level of the pipe then vapor will escape and the heater needs refilling-

Fig. 14 shows a simple form of compound direct fire still as manufactured by the Geo. L. Squier Mfg. Co., of Buffalo, N. Y.

Cellier-Blumenthal carrying this principle further devised an apparatus which has become the basis of all subsequent improvements; indeed, every successive invention has differed from this arrangement merely in detail, the general principles being in every case the same. The chief defect in the simple stills was that they were intermittent that is required the operations to be suspended when they were recharged, while that of Cellier-Blumenthal is continuous; that is to say, the liquid for distillation is introduced at one end of the arrangement, and the alcoholic products are received continuously, and of a constant degree of concentration, at the other. The saving of time and fuel resulting from the use of his still is enormous. In the case of the simple stills, the fuel consumed amounted to a weight nearly three times that of the spirit yielded by it; whereas, the Cellier-Blumenthal apparatus reduces the amount to one-quarter of the weight of alcohol produced. Fig. 15 shows the whole arrangement, and Figs. 16 to 17 represent different parts of it in detail.

In Fig. 15 A is a boiler, placed over a brick furnace; B is the still, placed beside it, on a slightly higher level and heated by the furnace flue

which passes underneath it. A pipe e conducts the steam from the boiler to the bottom of the still. By another pipe d, which is furnished with a stop cock and which reaches to the bottom of the still A, the alcoholic liquors in the Still may be run from it into the boiler; by turning the valve the

FIG. 16.—Details of Rectifier Column.

spent liquor may be run out at a. The glass tubes b and f show the height of liquid in the two vessels. K is the valve for filling the boiler and c the safety valve.

The still is surmounted by a column C, shown in section in Fig. 16. This column contains an enriching arrangement whereby the liquid flowing down.

into the still B is brought into intimate contact with the steam rising from the still. The liquid meets with obstacles in falling and falls downward in a shower, which thus presents multiplied obstacles to the ascent of the vapor. The liquid is thus heated almost to the boiling point before it falls into the still B. The construction for effecting this is shown at C, Fig. 16 and consists of an enclosed series of nine sets of circular copper saucer-shaped capsules, placed one above the other, and secured to three metallic rods passing through the series so that they can be all removed as one piece. These capsules are of different diameters, the larger ones which are, nearly the diameter of the column, are placed with the rounded side downwards, and are pierced with small holes; the smaller ones are turned bottom upwards, a stream of the liquid to be distilled flows down the pipe h from E, into the top capsule of C and then percolating through the small holes, falls into the smaller capsule beneath, and from the rim of this upon the one next below, and so throughout the whole of the series until it reaches the bottom and falls into the still B. The vapors rise up into the column from the still and meeting the stream of liquid convert it partially into vapor which passes out at the top of C considerably enriched, into the column D.

Fig. 16 shows a sectional view of the column D, the 'rectifying column" as it is called. It contains six vessels, placed one above the other, in an inverted position, so as to form seals. These are so disposed that the vapors must pass through a thin layer of liquor in each vessel. Some of the vapor is thus condensed and the condensed liquid flows back into column C, the uncondensed vapor considerably enriched passing up the pipe J, into the coil S in the condenser E, Fig. 17, which is filled with the "wash" to be distilled.

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