The product of the distillation of alcoholic liquors, which is termed low wine, does not usually contain alcohol in sufficient quantity to admit of its being employed for direct consumption. Besides this it always contains substances which have the property of distilling over with the spirit, although their boiling points, when in the pure state, are much higher than that of alcohol. These are all classed under the generic title of fusel-oil; owing to their very disagreeable taste and smell, their presence in spirit is extremely objectionable. In order to remove them, the rough products of distillation are submitted to a further process of concentration and purification. Besides fusel-oil, they contain other substances, such as aldehyde, various ethers, etc., the boiling points of which are lower than that of alcohol; these must also be removed, as they impart to the spirit a fiery taste. The whole process is termed rectification, and is carried on in a distillatory apparatus.

As before stated, the wash as discharged into the still consists of alcohol mixed with water and a variety of impurities from which the alcohol

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