Steady-State Systems: Bubbles and Droplets Bubbles are made by injecting vapor below the liquid surface. In contrast, droplets are commonly made by atomizing nozzles that inject liquid into a vapor. Bubble and droplet systems are fundamentally different, mainly because of the enormous difference in density of the injected phase. There are situations where each is preferred. Bubble systems tend to have much higher interfacial area as shown by Example 16 contrasted with Examples 14 and 15. Because of their higher area, bubble systems will usually give a closer approach to equilibrium.
FIG. 14-81 Cost of internal devices for columns containing random packings Chem. Eng., 84(21), 106 (Oct. 10, 1977).]
3 X 103
2 X 103
Tower diameter, m 05 1 2 3
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