FIG. 14-70 Flashing feed and vapor distributors. (a) Bare nozzle. (b) Rounded V baffle. (c) Peripheral flash box—the box extends right around the tower wall, with the collected liquid descending via downpipes to a liquid distributor below. (d) Gallery distributor—the feed enters the gallery area (upper plate). (Parts a-c, courtesy of Sulzer Chemtech; part d, courtesy of Koch-Glitsch LP.)
("Fluiddynamik von Kolonnen mit Modernen Füllkörpern und Packungen für Gas/Flüssigkeitssysteme, Otto Salle Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, and Verlag Sauerländer, Aarau, 1991), and by Mersmann and Deixler [Chem. Ing. Tech. 58(1), 19 (1986)] apply to second- and third-generation random packings as well as to some structured packings.
Stichlmair and Fair (Distillation Principles and Practice, Wiley-VCH, New York, 1998) show that liquid holdup is primarily a function of the liquid Froude number, specific surface area of the packing, and physical properties. They recommend the correction by Engel, Stichlmair, and Geipel [Ind. Eng. Chem. Symp. Ser. 142, 939 (1997)].
where hLo = liquid holdup, fractional
UL = liquid superficial velocity, m/s ap = packing specific surface area, m2/m3 g = acceleration due to gravity, m/s |L = liquid viscosity, kg/(ms) C = surface tension, mN/m
The Engel, Stichlmair, and Geipel correlation applies only in the preloading regime. The packing geometry is represented in the
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