Flooding is by far the most common upper capacity limit of a distillation tray. Column diameter is set to ensure the column can achieve the required throughput without flooding. Towers are usually designed to operate at 80 to 90 percent of the flood limit.

Flooding is an excessive accumulation of liquid inside a column. Flood symptoms include a rapid rise in pressure drop (the accumulating liquid increases the liquid head on the trays), liquid carryover from the column top, reduction in bottom flow rate (the accumulating liquid does not reach the tower bottom), and instability (accumulation is non-steady-state). This liquid accumulation is generally induced by one of the following mechanisms.

Entrainment (Jet) Flooding Froth or spray height rises with gas velocity. As the froth or spray approaches the tray above, some of the liquid is aspirated into the tray above as entrainment. Upon a further increase in gas flow rate, massive entrainment of the froth or spray begins, causing liquid accumulation and flood on the tray above.

Entrainment flooding can be subclassified into spray entrainment flooding (common) and froth entrainment flooding (uncommon). Froth entrainment flooding occurs when the froth envelope approaches the tray above, and is therefore only encountered with small tray spacings (<450 mm or 18 in) in the froth regime. At larger (and often even lower) tray spacing, the froth breaks into spray well before the froth envelope approaches the tray above.

The entrainment flooding prediction methods described here are based primarily on spray entrainment flooding. Considerations unique to froth entrainment flooding can be found elsewhere (Kister, Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992).

Spray Entrainment Flooding Prediction Most entrainment flooding prediction methods derive from the original work of Souders and Brown [Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(1), 98 (1934)]. Souders and Brown theoretically analyzed entrainment flooding in terms of droplet settling velocity. Flooding occurs when the upward vapor velocity is high enough to suspend a liquid droplet, giving

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