Gasinliquid Dispersions

General References: Design methods for agitated vessels are presented by Penney in Couper et al., Chemical Process Equipment, Selection and Design, Chap. 10, Gulf Professional Publishing, Burlington, Mass., 2005. A comprehensive review of all industrial mixing technology is given by Paul, Atemo-Obeng, and Kresta, Handbook oof Industrial Mixing, Wiley, Hoboken, N.J., 2004. Comprehensive treatments of bubbles or foams are given by Akers, Foams: Symposium 1975, Academic Press, New York, 1973; Bendure, Tappi, 58, 83 (1975); Benfratello, Energ Elettr., 30, 80, 486 (1953); Berkman and Egloff, Emulsions and Foams, Reinhold, New York, 1941, pp. 112-152; Bikerman, Foams, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975; Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia oof Chemical Technology, 4th ed., Wiley, New York, 1993, pp. 82-145; Haberman and Morton, Report 802, David W. Taylor Model Basin, Washington, 1953; Levich, Physico-chemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1962; and Soo, Fluid Dynamics of Multiphase Systems, Blaisdell, Waltham, Massachusetts,

FIG. 14-90 Entrainment droplet-size distribution. To convert meters per second to feet per second, multiply by 3.28, to convert meters to feet multiply by 3.28.

1967. The formation of bubbles is comprehensively treated by Clift, Grace, and Weber, Bubbles, Drops and Particles, Academic, New York, 1978; Kumar and Kuloor, Adv. Chem. Eng, 8, 255-368 (1970); and Wilkinson and Van Dieren-donck, Chem. Eng Sci., 49, 1429-1438 (1994). Design methods for units operation in bubble columns and stirred vessels are covered by Atika and Yoshida, Ind. Eng Chem. Process Des. Dev., 13,84 (1974); Calderbank, The Chem. Eng. (London), CE209 (October, 1967); and Mixing, vol. II, Academic, New York, 1967, pp. 1-111; Fair, Chem. Eng, 74,67 (July 3, 1967); Jordan, Chemical Process Dev. Interscience, New York, 1968, part 1, pp. 111-175; Mersmann, Ger. Chem. Eng 1, 1 (1978); Resnick and Gal-Or, Adv. Chem. Eng., 7, 295-395 (1968); Valentin Absorption in Gas-Liquid Dispersions, E. & F. N. Spon, London, 1967; Tatter son, Fluid Mixing and Gas Dispersion in Agitated Tanks, McGraw-Hill, 1991 and Deckwer and Schumpe, Chem. Eng. Sci., 48, 889-991 (1993).

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