Gasphase Continuous Systems

Practical separation techniques for liquid particles in gases are discussed. Since gas-borne particulates include both liquid and solid particles, many devices used for dry-dust collection (discussed in Sec. 17 under "Gas-Solids Separation") can be adapted to liquid-particle separation. Also, the basic subject of particle mechanics is covered in Sec. 6. Separation of liquid particulates is frequently desirable in chemical processes such as in countercurrent-stage contacting because liquid entrainment with the gas partially reduces true countercurrency. Sep aration before entering another process step may be needed to prevent corrosion, to prevent yield loss, or to prevent equipment damage or malfunction. Separation before the atmospheric release of gases may be necessary to prevent environmental problems and for regulatory compliance.

General References

G-1. Buonicore and Davis, eds., Air Pollution Engineering Manual, Van Nos-

trand Reinhold, New York, 1992. G-2. Calvert and Englund, eds., Handbook of Air Pollution Technology, Wiley, New York, 1984.

G-3. Cheremisinoff, ed., Encyclopedia of Environmental Control Technology, vol. 2, Gulf Pub., Houston, 1989. G-4. McKetta, Unit Operations Handbook, vol. 1-2, Dekker, New York, 1992. G-5. Wark and Warner, Air Pollution: Its Origin and Control, 2d ed., Harper &

Row, New York, 1981. G-6. Hesketh, Air Pollution Control, 1979; Fine Particles in Gaseous Media,

Ann Arbor Science Pubs., Ann Arbor, MI, 1977. G-7. Stern, Air Pollution, 3d ed., vols. 3-5, Academic, Orlando, FL, 1976-77.

G-8. Strauss, Industrial Gas Cleaning, 2d ed., Pergamon, New York, 1975. G-9. Theodore and Buonicore, Air Pollution Control Equipment; Selection, Design, Operation and Maintenance, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1982.

G-10. Wang and Pereira, eds., Handbook of Environmental Engineering, vol. 1,

Humana, Clifton, NJ 1979. G-11. Cheremisinoff and Young, Air Pollution Control and Design Handbook, parts 1-2, Dekker, New York, 1977. G-12. Nonhebel, Gas Purification Processes for Air Pollution Control, Newnes-Butterworth, London, 1972.

Sampling

R-1. Code of Federal Regulations, 40 (CFR 40), subchapter C—Air Programs, parts 50-99, Office of the Federal Register, Washington. R-2. Ref. G-11, part 1, pp. 65-121.

R-3. Cooper and Rossano, Source Testing for Air Pollution Control, Environmental Science Services, Wilton, Connecticut, 1970. R-4. Ref. G-7, vol. 3, pp. 525-587.

R-5. Methods of Air Sampling and Analysis, 2d Ed., American Public Health

Assoc., Washington, 1977. R-6. Stockham and Fochtman, Particle Size Analysis, Ann Arbor Science

Pubs., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1977. R-7. Ref. G-2, Ch. 31, pp. 785-832. R-8. Ref. G-8, Ch. 2, pp. 39-79.

Specific

R-9. Calvert, Goldchmid, Leith, and Mehta, NTIS Publ. PB-213016, 213017, 1972.

R-10. Calvert, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 929 (1974). R-11. Calvert, Chem. Eng., 84(18), 54 (1977). R-12. Calvert, Yung, and Leung, NTIS Publ. PB-248050, 1975. R-13. Calvert and Lundgren, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 18, 677 (1968). R-14. Calvert, Lundgren, and Mehta, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 22, 529 (1972).

R-15. Yung, Barbarika, and Calvert, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 27, 348, (1977).

R-16. Katz, M.S. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1958. R-17. York and Poppele, Chem. Eng. Prog., 59(6), 45 (1963). R-18. York, Chem. Eng. Prog., 50, 421 (1954). R-19. Ref. G-2, Ch. 10, pp. 215-248. References with the notation (R- ) are cited in the text.

Definitions: Mist and Spray Little standardization has been adopted in defining gas-borne liquid particles, and this frequently leads to confusion in the selection, design, and operation of collection equipment. Aerosol applies to suspended particulate, either solid or liquid, which is slow to settle by gravity and to particles from the sub-micrometer range up to 10 to 20 |m. Mists are fine suspended liquid dispersions usually resulting from condensation and ranging upward in particle size from around 0.1 | m. Spray refers to entrained liquid droplets. The droplets may be entrained from atomizing processes previously discussed under "Liquid-in-Gas Dispersions" in this section. In such instances, size will range from the finest particles produced up to a particle whose terminal settling velocity is equal to the entraining gas velocity if some settling volume is provided. Process spray is often created unintentionally, such as by the condensation of vapors on cold duct walls and its subsequent reentrainment, or from two-phase flow in pipes, gas bubbling through liquids, and entrain-ment from boiling liquids. Entrainment size distribution from sieve trays has been given by Cheng and Teller [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 7(2), 282 (1961)] and evaporator spray by Garner et al. [Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 32,222 (1954)]. In general, spray can range downward in particle size from 5000 | m. There can be overlapping in size between the coarsest mist particles and the finest spray particles, but some authorities have found it convenient arbitrarily to set a boundary of 10 |m between the two. Actually, considerable overlap exists in the region of 5 to 40 | m. Table 14-26 lists typical ranges of particle size created by different mechanisms. The sizes actually entrained can be influenced by the local gas velocity. Figure 14-105 compares the approximate size range of liquid particles with other particulate material and the approximate applicable size range of collection devices. Figure 17-34 gives an expanded chart by Lapple for solid particles. Mist and fog formation has been discussed previously.

Gas Sampling The sampling of gases containing mists and sprays may be necessary to obtain data for collection-device design, in which case particle-size distribution, total mass loading, and gas volume,

TABLE 14-26 Particle Sizes Produced by Various Mechanisms

Mechanism or process

Particle-size range, |m

Liquid pressure spray nozzle

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