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than 3, it is not often reached in process equipment. However, fog formation is typically found in steam turbines. Gyarmathy [Proc. Inst. Mech. E., Part A: J. Power and Energy 219(A6), 511-521 (2005)] reports fog in the range 3.5 to 5 percent of total steam flow, with average fog diameter in the range of0.1 to 0.2 |m.

Growth on Foreign Nuclei As noted above, foreign nuclei are often present in abundance and permit fog formation at much lower supersaturation. For example,

1. Solids. Surveys have shown that air contains thousands of particles per cubic centimeter in the 0.1-|m to 1-|m range suitable for nuclei. The sources range from ocean-generated salt spray to combustion processes. The concentration is highest in large cities and industrial regions. When the foreign nuclei are soluble in the fog, nucleation occurs at S values very close to 1.0. This is the mechanism controlling atmospheric water condensation. Even when not soluble, a foreign particle is an effective nucleus if wet by the liquid. Thus, a 1-|m insoluble particle with zero contact angle requires an S of only 1.001 in order to serve as a condensation site for water.

2. Ions. Amelin [Theory of Fog Condensation, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, (1967)] reports that ordinary air contains even higher concentrations of ions. These ions also reduce the required critical supersaturation, but by only about 10 to 20 percent, unless multiple charges are present.

3. Entrained liquids. Production of small droplets is inherent in the bubbling process, as shown by Fig. 14-90. Values range from near zero to 10,000/cm3 of vapor, depending on how the vapor breaks through the liquid and on the opportunity for evaporation of the small drops after entrainment.

As a result of these mechanisms, most process streams contain enough foreign nuclei to cause some fogging. While fogging has been reported in only a relatively low percent of process partial condensers, it is rarely looked for and volunteers its presence only when yield losses or pollution is intolerable.

Dropsize Distribution Monodisperse (nearly uniform droplet size) fogs can be grown by providing a long retention time for growth. However, industrial fogs usually show a broad distribution, as in Fig. 14-91. Note also that for this set of data, the sizes are several orders of magnitude smaller than those shown earlier for entrainment and atomizers.

The result, as discussed in a later subsection, is a demand for different removal devices for the small particles.

While generally fog formation is a nuisance, it can occasionally be useful because of the high surface area generated by the fine drops. An example is insecticide application.

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