FIG. 14-88 Droplet-size distribution for three different types of nozzles. To convert pounds per square inch gauge to kilopascals, multiply by 6.89; to convert gallons per minute to cubic meters per hour, multiply by 0.227. (Spraying Systems Inc. )

Entrainment due to Gas Bubbling/Jetting through a Liquid

Entrainment generally limits the capacity of distillation trays and is commonly a concern in vaporizers and evaporators. Fortunately, it is readily controllable by simple inertial entrainment capture devices such as wire mesh pads in gravity separators.

In distillation towers, entrainment lowers the tray efficiency, and 1 pound of entrainment per 10 pounds of liquid is sometimes taken as the limit for acceptable performance. However, the impact of entrainment on distillation efficiency depends on the relative volatility of the component being considered. Entrainment has a minor impact on close separations when the difference between vapor and liquid concentration is small, but this factor can be dominant for systems where the liquid concentration is much higher than the vapor in equilibrium with it (i.e., when a component of the liquid has a very low volatility, as in an absorber).

As shown by Fig. 14-90, entrainment droplet sizes span a broad range. The reason for the much larger drop sizes of the upper curve is the short disengaging space. For this curve, over 99 percent of the entrainment has a terminal velocity greater than the vapor velocity. For contrast, in the lower curve the terminal velocity of the largest particle reported is the same as the vapor velocity. For the

TABLE 14-20 Exponential Dependence of Drop Size on Different Parameters in Two-Fluid Atomization
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