*Values are approximate and may not be consistent. Actual number depends on wall thickness and material.

*Values are approximate and may not be consistent. Actual number depends on wall thickness and material.

Tacking factor Fp from Kister, Distillation Design, McGraw-Hill, 1992; Kister, Larson, and Gill, paper presented at the Houston AIChE meeting, March 19-23, 1995; Strigle, Packed Tower Design and Applications, 2d ed., Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Tex., 1994; Kister et al., in Distillation 2007. Topical Conference Proceedings, 2007 AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston, Tex.

dDry packing factor Fpd from Robbins, Chem. Eng. Progr., 87(1), 19 (1990).

§ The bracketed packings are similar to, but not the same as, the Koch-Glitsch IMTP. Some of them have holes that the IMTP do not have, and others have sizes that are different and are made by different dies.

'Packing factor supplied by packing vendor.

Vendors: Koch-Glitsch LLP, Wichita, Kansas; Raschig GmbH, Ludwigshafen/Rhein, Germany; Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Win-terthur, Switzerland; Rauschert Verfahrenstechnik GmbH, Steinwiesen, Germany; Amistco Separation Products Inc., Alvin, Texas; Julius Montz GmbH, Hilden, Germany; Ceilcote Co., Berea, Ohio; NSW Corp., Roanoke, Virginia; Lantec Products Inc., Agoura Hills, California.

Pg = gas density, lb/ft3 pL = liquid density, lb/ft3 |L = liquid viscosity, cP

The Robbins correlation applies near atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, but is not suitable above 3 bar absolute. For high (>0.3) flow parameters [Eq. (14-141)], the correlation has only been tested with air-water data.

For flood and MOC predictions, Robbins recommends his pressure drop method together with Eqs. (14-142) (flood) and (14-139) (MOC).

The GPDC and Robbins correlations are empirical. Fundamental correlations are also available. Most of these use the channel model, which attributes the pressure drop to the resistance to flow in a multitude of parallel channels. The channels may have bends, expansions, and contractions. Popular application of this approach are the Rocha et al. correlation [Rocha, Bravo, and Fair, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32,641 (1993)] for structured packing and the Mackowiak ("Fluiddynamik von Kolonnen mit Modernen Füllkorpern und Packungen für Gas/Flussigke-itssysteme," Otto Salle Verlag, Frankfurt am Main und Verlag Sauerländer Aarau, Frankfurt am Main, 1991) and Billet (Packed Column

TABLE 14-14 Characteristics of Structured Packings

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