Calvert Yung Leung

where

9|lgdc

Values of pp and dp are droplet density, g/cm3, and droplet diameter, cm; | is the gas viscosity, P. All other terms were defined previously. Table 14-27 gives values of j calculated from experimental data of Jackson and Calvert. Values of j for most manufactured packing appear to fall in the range from 0.16 to 0.19. The low value of 0.03 for coke may be due to the porosity of the coke itself.

Calvert (R-12) has tested the correlation in cross-flow packed beds, which tend to give better drainage than countercurrent beds, and has found the effect of gas-flow orientation insignificant. However, the onset of reentrainment was somewhat lower in a bed of 2.5-cm (1.0-in) pall rings with gas upflow [6 m/s (20 ft/s)] than with horizontal cross-flow of gas. The onset of reentrainment was independent of liquid loading (all beds were nonirrigated), and entrainment occurred at values somewhat above the flood point for packed beds as predicted by conventional correlations. In beds with more than 3 cm (1.2 in) of water pressure drop, the experimental drop with both vertical and horizontal gas flow was somewhat less than predicted by generalized packed-bed pressure-drop correlations. However, Calvert recommends these correlations for design as conservative.

Calvert's data indicate that packed beds irrigated only with the collected liquid can have collection efficiencies of 80 to 90 percent on mist particles down to 3 |m but have low efficiency on finer mist particles. Frequently, irrigated packed towers and towers with internals will be used with liquid having a wetting capability for the fine mist which must be collected. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) experiments with the collection of 1.0-|m mass median phosphoric acid mist in packed towers have shown that the strength of the circulating phosphoric acid is highly important [see Baskerville, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 37, 79 (1941); and p. 18-87, 5th ed. of the Handbook]. Hes-keth (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 24, 942 (1974)] has reported up to 50 percent improvement in collection efficiency in venturi scrubbers on fine particles with the addition of only 0.10 percent of a low-foaming nonionic surfactant to the scrubbing liquid, and others have experienced similar results in other gas-liquid-contacting devices. Calvert (R-9 and R-10) has reported on the efficiency of various gas-liquid-contacting devices for fine particles. Figure 14-118 gives the particle aerodynamic cut size for a single-sieve-plate gas scrubber as a function of sieve hole size dh, cm; hole gas velocity uh, m/s; and froth or foam density on the plate F, g/cm3. This curve is based on standard air and water properties and wettable (hydrophilic) particles. The cut diameter decreases with an increase in froth density, which must be predicted from correlations for sieve-plate behavior (see Fig. 14-32). Equation (14-231) can be used to calculate generalized design curves for collection in packed columns in the same fashion by finding parameters of packing size, bed length, and gas velocity which give collection efficiencies of 50 percent for various size particles. Figure 14-119 illustrates such a plot for three gas velocities and two sizes of packing.

Pressure Drop Brewery Buffalo

FIG. 14-118 Aerodynamic cut diameter for a single-sieve-plate scrubber as a function of hole size, hole-gas velocity, and froth density, F,g/cm3. To convert meters per second to feet per second, multiply by 3.281; to convert grams per cubic centimeter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. [Calvert, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 24, 929 (1974).]

FIG. 14-118 Aerodynamic cut diameter for a single-sieve-plate scrubber as a function of hole size, hole-gas velocity, and froth density, F,g/cm3. To convert meters per second to feet per second, multiply by 3.281; to convert grams per cubic centimeter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. [Calvert, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 24, 929 (1974).]

Wire-Mesh Mist Collectors Knitted mesh of varying density and voidage is widely used for entrainment separators. Its advantage is close to 100 percent removal of drops larger than 5 |m at superficial gas velocities from about 0.2 ms/s (0.6 ft/s) to 5 m/s (16.4 ft/s), depending somewhat on the design of the mesh. Pressure drop is usually no more than 2.5 cm (1 in) of water. A major disadvantage is the ease with which tars and insoluble solids plug the mesh. The separator can be made to fit vessels of any shape and can be made of any material which can be drawn into a wire. Stainless-steel and plastic fibers are most common, but other metals are sometimes used. Generally three basic types of mesh are used: (1) layers with a crimp in the same direction (each layer is actually a nested double layer); (2) layers with a crimp in

FIG. 14-119 Aerodynamic cut diameter for a typical packed-bed entrainment separator as a function of packing size, bed depth, and three gas velocities: curve 1-1.5 m/s, curve 2-3.0 m/s, and curve 3-4.5 m/s. To convert meters to feet, multiply by 3.281; to convert centimeters to inches, multiply by 0.394. [Calvert, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 24, 929 (1974).]

FIG. 14-119 Aerodynamic cut diameter for a typical packed-bed entrainment separator as a function of packing size, bed depth, and three gas velocities: curve 1-1.5 m/s, curve 2-3.0 m/s, and curve 3-4.5 m/s. To convert meters to feet, multiply by 3.281; to convert centimeters to inches, multiply by 0.394. [Calvert, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 24, 929 (1974).]

alternate directions, which increases voidage, reduces sheltering and increases target efficiency per layer, and gives a lower pressure drop per unit length; and (3) spiral-wound layers which reduce pressure drop by one-third, but fluid creep may lead to higher entrainment. Some small manufacturers of plastic meshes may offer other weaves claimed to be superior. The filament size can vary from about 0.15 mm (0.006 in) for fine-wire pads to 3.8 mm (0.15 in) for some plastic fibers. Typical pad thickness varies from 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6 in), but occasionally pads up to 300 mm (12 in) thick are used. A typical wire diameter for standard stainless mesh is 0.28 mm (0.011 in), with a finished mesh density of 0.15 g/cm3 (9.4 lb/ft3). A lower mesh density may be produced with standard wire to give 10 to 20 percent higher flow rates.

Figure 14-120 presents an early calculated estimate of mesh efficiency as a fraction of mist-particle size. Experiments by Calvert (R-12) confirm the accuracy of the equation of Bradie and Dickson (Joint Symp. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng./Yorkshire Br. Inst. Chem. Eng., 1969, pp. 24-25) for primary efficiency in mesh separators:

where n is the overall collection efficiency for a given-size particle; l is the thickness of the mesh, cm, in the direction of gas flow; a is the surface area of the wires per unit volume of mesh pad, cm2/cm3; and n ¡, the target collection efficiency for cylindrical wire, can be calculated from Fig. 17-39 or the impaction data of Golovin and Putnam [Ind. Eng. Chem., 1, 264 (1962)]. The factor 2/3, introduced by Carpenter and Othmer [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 1,549 (1955)], corrects for the fact that not all the wires are perpendicular to the gas flow and gives the projected perpendicular area. If the specific mesh surface area a is not available, it can be calculated from the mesh void area £ and the mesh wire diameter dw in cm, a = 4(1 — £)/dw.

York and Poppele (R-17) have stated that factors governing maximum allowable gas velocity through the mesh are (1) gas and liquid density, (2) liquid surface tension, (3) liquid viscosity, (4) specific wire surface area, (5) entering-liquid loading, and (6) suspended-solids content. York (R-18) has proposed application of the Souders-Brown equation [Eq. (14-226)] for correlation of maximum allowable gas velocity with values of K for most cases of 0.1067 m/s to give U in m/s (0.35 for ft/s). When liquid viscosity or inlet loading is high or the liquid is dirty, the value of K must be reduced. Schroeder (M.S. thesis, Newark College of Engineering, 1962) found lower values for K necessary when liquid surface tension is reduced such as by the presence of surfactants in water. Ludwig (Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, 2d ed., vol. I, Gulf, Houston, 1977, p. 157) recommends reduced K values of (0.061 m/s) under vacuum at an absolute pressure of 6.77 kPa (0.98 lbf/in2) and K = 0.082 m/s at 54 kPa (7.83 lbf/in2) absolute. Most manufacturers suggest setting the design velocity at three-fourths of the maximum velocity to allow for surges in gas flow.

York and Poppele (R-17) have suggested that total pressure drop through the mesh is equal to the sum of the mesh dry pressure drop

FIG. 14-120 Collection efficiency of wire-mesh separator; 6-in thickness, 98.6 percent free space, 0.006-in-diameter wire used for experiment points. Curves calculated for target area equal to 2 and 3 times the solids volume of packing. To convert inches to millimeters, multiply by 25.4.

plus an increment due to the presence of liquid. They considered the mesh to be equivalent to numerous small circular channels and used the D'Arcy formula with a modified Reynolds number to correlate friction factor (see Fig. 14-121) for Eq. (14-233) giving dry pressure drop.

where AP is in cm of water; f is from Fig. (14-121); pg is the gas density, g/cm3; Ug is the superficial gas velocity, cm/s; and £ is the mesh porosity or void fraction; l and a are as defined in Eq. (14-232). Figure 14-121 gives data of York and Poppele for mesh crimped in the same and alternating directions and also includes the data of Satsangee, of Schuring, and of Bradie and Dickson.

The incremental pressure drop for wet mesh is not available for all operating conditions or for mesh of different styles. The data of York and Poppele for wet-mesh incremental pressure drop, APL in cm of water, are shown in Fig. 14-122 or parameters of liquid velocity L/A, defined as liquid volumetric flow rate, cm3/min per unit of mesh cross-sectional area in cm2; liquid density pL is in g/cm3.

York generally recommends the installation of the mesh horizontally with upflow of gas as in Fig. 14-110f Calvert (R-12) tested the mesh horizontally with upflow and vertically with horizontal gas flow. He reports better drainage with the mesh vertical and somewhat higher permissible gas velocities without reentrainment, which is contrary to past practice. With horizontal flow through vertical mesh, he found collection efficiency to follow the predictions of Eq. (14-232) up to 4 m/s (13 ft/s) with air and water. Some reentrainment was encountered at higher velocities, but it did not appear serious until velocities exceeded 6.0 m/s (20 ft/s). With vertical upflow of gas, entrainment was encountered at velocities above and below 4.0 m/s (13 ft/s), depending on inlet liquid quantity (see Fig. 14-123). Figure 14-124 illustrates the onset of entrainment from mesh as a function of liquid loading and gas velocity and the safe operating area recommended by Calvert. Measurements of dry pressure drop by Calvert gave values only about one-third of those predicted from Eq. (14233). He found the pressure drop to be highly affected by liquid load. The pressure drop of wet mesh could be correlated as a function of Ug.-65 and parameters of liquid loading L/A, as shown in Fig. 14-125.

As indicated previously, mesh efficiency drops rapidly as particles decrease in size below 5 |m. An alternative is to use two mesh pads in series. The first mesh is made of fine wires and is operated beyond the

FIG. 14-121 Value of friction factor f for dry knitted mesh for Eq. (14-233). Values of York and Poppele [Chem. Eng. Prog., 50, 421 (1954)] are given in curve 1 for mesh crimped in the alternating direction and curve 2 for mesh crimped in the same direction. Data of Bradie and Dickson (Joint Symp. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng./Yorkshire Br Inst. Chem. Eng., 1969, pp. 24-25) are given in curve 3 for layered mesh and curve 4 for spiral-wound mesh. Curve 5 is data of Satsangee (M.S. thesis, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, 1948) and Schurig (D.Ch.E. dissertation, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, 1946). (From Calvert, Yung, and Leung, NTIS Publ. PB-248050, 1975.)

FIG. 14-121 Value of friction factor f for dry knitted mesh for Eq. (14-233). Values of York and Poppele [Chem. Eng. Prog., 50, 421 (1954)] are given in curve 1 for mesh crimped in the alternating direction and curve 2 for mesh crimped in the same direction. Data of Bradie and Dickson (Joint Symp. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng./Yorkshire Br Inst. Chem. Eng., 1969, pp. 24-25) are given in curve 3 for layered mesh and curve 4 for spiral-wound mesh. Curve 5 is data of Satsangee (M.S. thesis, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, 1948) and Schurig (D.Ch.E. dissertation, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, 1946). (From Calvert, Yung, and Leung, NTIS Publ. PB-248050, 1975.)

FIG. 14-122 Incremental pressure drop in knitted mesh due to the presence of liquid (a) with the mesh crimps in the same direction and (b) with crimps in the alternating direction, based on the data of York and Poppele [Chem. Eng. Prog., 50, 421 (1954)]. To convert centimeters per minute to feet per minute, multiply by 0.0328; to convert centimeters per second to feet per second, multiply by 0.0328. (From Calvert, Yung, and Leung, NTIS Publ. PB-248050, 1975.)

4 5 6 7 8 9 tO 11 12 13 Uç,[<V(<°L-'V],/2, cm/s

FIG. 14-122 Incremental pressure drop in knitted mesh due to the presence of liquid (a) with the mesh crimps in the same direction and (b) with crimps in the alternating direction, based on the data of York and Poppele [Chem. Eng. Prog., 50, 421 (1954)]. To convert centimeters per minute to feet per minute, multiply by 0.0328; to convert centimeters per second to feet per second, multiply by 0.0328. (From Calvert, Yung, and Leung, NTIS Publ. PB-248050, 1975.)

flood point. It results in droplet coalescence, and the second mesh, using standard wire and operated below flooding, catches entrain-ment from the first mesh. Coalescence and flooding in the first mesh may be assisted with water sprays or irrigation. Massey [Chem. Eng. Prog., 53(5), 114 (1959)] and Coykendall et al. [ J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 18, 315 (1968)] have discussed such applications. Calvert (R-12) presents data on the particle size of entrained drops from mesh as a function of gas velocity which can be used for sizing the secondary collector. A major disadvantage of this approach is high pressure drop, which can be in the range from 25 cm (10 in) of water to as high as 85 cm (33 in) of water if the mist is mainly submicrometer.

Wet Scrubbers Scrubbers have not been widely used for the collection of purely liquid particulate, probably because they are generally more complex and expensive than impaction devices of the types previously discussed. Further, scrubbers are no more efficient than

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