P JTf p

where (dW/W) is the mass of particles in a given narrow size distribution and Pt is the average penetration for that size range. When the particles to be collected are log-normally distributed and the collection device efficiency can be expressed_by Eq. (14-224), the required overall integrated collection efficiency Pt can be related to the ratio of the device aerodynamic cut size Dpc to the mass median aerodynamic particle size Dpa50. This required ratio for a given distribution and collection is designated RrL and these relationships are illustrated graphically in Fig. 14-106. For the many devices for which B is approximately 2.0, a simplified plot (Fig. 14-107) is obtained. From these figures, by knowing the desired overall collection efficiency and particle distribution, the value of RrL can be read. Substituting the mass median particle diameter gives the aerodynamic cut size

FIG. 14-106 Overall integrated penetration as a function of particle-size distribution and collector parameters. (Calvert, Yung, and Leung, NTIS Publ. PB-248050,1975.)
FIG. 14-107 Overall integrated penetration as a function of particle-size distribution and collector cut diameter when B = 2 in Eq. (14-224). (Calvert, Gold-shmid, Leith, andMehta, NTIS Publ. PB-213016, 213017, 1972.)

required from the collection device being considered. Therefore, an experimental plot of aerodynamic cut size for each collection device versus operating parameters can be used to determine the device suitability.

Collection Equipment

Gravity Settlers Gravity can act to remove larger droplets. Settling or disengaging space above aerated or boiling liquids in a tank or spray zone in a tower can be very useful. If gas velocity is kept low, all particles with terminal settling velocities (see Sec. 6) above the gas velocity will eventually settle. Increasing vessel cross section in the settling zone is helpful. Terminal velocities for particles smaller than 50 |m are very low and generally not attractive for particle removal. Laminar flow of gas in long horizontal paths between trays or shelves on which the droplets settle is another effective means of employing gravity. Design equations are given in Sec. 17 under "Gas-Solids Separations." Settler pressure drop is very low, usually being limited to entrance and exit losses.

Centrifugal Separation Centrifugal force can be utilized to enhance particle collection to several hundredfold that of gravity. The design of cyclone separators for dust removal is treated in detail in Sec. 17 under "Gas-Solids Separations," and typical cyclone designs are shown in Fig. 17-43. Dimension ratios for one family of cyclones are given in Fig. 17-36. Cyclones, if carefully designed, can be more efficient on liquids than on solids since liquids coalesce on capture and are easy to drain from the unit. However, some precautions not needed for solid cyclones are necessary to prevent reentrainment.

Tests by Calvert (R-12) show high primary collection efficiency on droplets down to 10 | m and in accordance with the efficiency equations of Leith and Licht [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. Symp. Ser., 68(126), 196-206 (1972)] for the specific cyclone geometry tested if entrain-ment is avoided. Typical entrainment points are (1) creep along the gas outlet pipe, (2) entrainment by shearing of the liquid film from the walls, and (3) vortex pickup from accumulated liquid in the bottom (Fig. 14-108a). Reentrainment from creep of liquid along the top of the cyclone and down the outlet pipe can be prevented by providing the outlet pipe with a flared conical skirt (Fig. 14-108b), which provides a point from which the liquid can drip without being caught in the outlet gas. The skirt should be slightly shorter than the gas outlet pipe but extend below the bottom of the gas inlet. The cyclone inlet gas should not impinge on this skirt. Often the bottom edge of the skirt is V-notched or serrated.

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