General References: For an overall discussion of gas-liquid breakup processes, see Brodkey, The Phenomena oof Fluid Motions, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1967. For a discussion of atomization devices and how they work, see Masters, Spray Drying Handbook, 5th ed., Wiley, New York, 1991; and Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays, Hemisphere, New York, 1989. A beautifully illustrated older source is Dombrowski and Munday, Biochemical and Biological Engineering Science, vol. 2, Academic Press, London, 1968, pp. 209-320. Steinmeyer [Chem. Engr. Prog., 91(7), 72-80 (1995)] built on Hinze's work with turbulence and showed that several atomization processes follow the common theme of breakup of large droplets due to turbulence in the gas phase. Turbulence in turn correlates with power dissipation per unit mass. In the text below, correlations referring to power/mass are taken from this source. For a survey on fog formation, see Amelin, Theory of Fog Formation, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967.
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