Phase Dispersion

Basics of Interfacial Contactors 14-86

Steady-State Systems: Bubbles and Droplets 14-86

Unstable Systems: Froths and Hollow Cone

Atomizing Nozzles 14-88

Surface Tension Makes Liquid Sheets and Liquid

Columns Unstable 14-88

Little Droplets and Bubbles vs. Big Droplets and

Bubbles—Coalescence vs. Breakup 14-88

Empirical Design Tempered by Operating Data 14-88

Interfacial Area—Impact of Droplet or Bubble Size 14-88

Example 14: Interfacial Area for Droplets/Gas in

Cocurrent Flow 14-88

Example 15: Interfacial Area for Droplets Falling in a

Vessel 14-88

Example 16: Interfacial Area for Bubbles Rising in a Vessel 14-88

Rate Measures, Transfer Units, Approach to Equilibrium, and Bypassing 14-89

What Controls Mass/Heat Transfer: Liquid or Gas

Transfer or Bypassing 14-89

Liquid-Controlled 14-89

Gas-Controlled 14-89

Bypassing-Controlled 14-89

Rate Measures for Interfacial Processes 14-89

Approach to Equilibrium 14-89

Example 17: Approach to Equilibrium—Perfectly Mixed,

Complete Exchange 14-89

Example 18: Approach to Equilibrium—Complete Exchange but with 10 Percent Gas Bypassing 14-89

Approach to Equilibrium—Finite Contactor with

No Bypassing 14-89

Example 19: Finite Exchange, No Bypassing,

Short Contactor 14-89

Example 20: A Contactor That Is Twice as Long,

No Bypassing 14-90

Transfer Coefficient—Impact of Droplet Size 14-90

Importance of Turbulence 14-90

Examples of Contactors 14-90

High-Velocity Pipeline Contactors

Example 21: Doubling the Velocity in a Horizontal

Pipeline Contactor—Impact on Effective Heat Transfer 14-90

Vertical Reverse Jet Contactor 14-90

Example 22: The Reverse Jet Contactor, U.S. Patent 6,339,169 . . . . 14-91

Simple Spray Towers 14-91

Bypassing Limits Spray Tower Performance in Gas Cooling 14-91

Spray Towers in Liquid-Limited Systems—Hollow Cone

Atomizing Nozzles 14-91

Devolatilizers 14-91

Spray Towers as Direct Contact Condensers 14-91

Converting Liquid Mass-Transfer Data to Direct Contact

Heat Transfer 14-91

Example 23: Estimating Direct Contact Condensing

Performance Based on kLa Mass-Transfer Data 14-91

Example 24: HCl Vent Absorber 14-91

Liquid-in-Gas Dispersions 14-91

Liquid Breakup into Droplets 14-91

Droplet Breakup—High Turbulence 14-92

Liquid-Column Breakup 14-92

Liquid-Sheet Breakup 14-92

Isolated Droplet Breakup—in a Velocity Field 14-92

Droplet Size Distribution 14-93

Atomizers 14-93

Hydraulic (Pressure) Nozzles 14-93

Effect of Physical Properties on Drop Size 14-93

Effect of Pressure Drop and Nozzle Size 14-93

Spray Angle 14-93

Two-Fluid (Pneumatic) Atomizers 14-94

Rotary Atomizers 14-95

Pipeline Contactors 14-95

Entrainment due to Gas Bubbling/Jetting through a Liquid 14-96

"Upper Limit" Flooding in Vertical Tubes 14-97

Fog Condensation—The Other Way to Make Little Droplets 14-97

Spontaneous (Homogeneous) Nucleation 14-98

Growth on Foreign Nuclei 14-98

Dropwise Distribution 14-98

Gas-in-Liquid Dispersions 14-98

Objectives of Gas Dispersion 14-99

Theory of Bubble and Foam Formation 14-100

Characteristics of Dispersion 14-102

Methods of Gas Dispersion 14-104

Equipment Selection 14-106

Mass Transfer 14-108

Axial Dispersion 14-111

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