Wetted-wall or falling-film columns have found application in masstransfer problems when high-heat-transfer-rate requirements are concomitant with the absorption process. Large areas of open surface

FIG. 14-77 Mass-transfer rates in wetted-wall columns having turbulence promoters. To convert pound-moles per hour-square foot-atmosphere to kilogram-moles per second-square meter-atmosphere, multiply by 0.00136; to convert pounds per hour-square foot to kilograms per second-square meter, multiply by 0.00136; and to convert inches to millimeters, multiply by 25.4. (Data of Greenewalt and Cogan and Cogan, Sherwood, and Pigford, Absorption and Extraction, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952. )

FIG. 14-77 Mass-transfer rates in wetted-wall columns having turbulence promoters. To convert pound-moles per hour-square foot-atmosphere to kilogram-moles per second-square meter-atmosphere, multiply by 0.00136; to convert pounds per hour-square foot to kilograms per second-square meter, multiply by 0.00136; and to convert inches to millimeters, multiply by 25.4. (Data of Greenewalt and Cogan and Cogan, Sherwood, and Pigford, Absorption and Extraction, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952. )

are available for heat transfer for a given rate of mass transfer in this type of equipment because of the low mass-transfer rate inherent in wetted-wall equipment. In addition, this type of equipment lends itself to annular-type cooling devices.

Gilliland and Sherwood [Ind. Eng. Chem., 26, 516 (1934)] found that, for vaporization of pure liquids in air streams for streamline flow, kgD,,,

where Dg = diffusion coefficient, ft2/h Dtube = inside diameter of tube, ft kg = mass-transfer coefficient, gas phase, lbmol/(hft2) (lbmol/ft3) PBM = logarithmic mean partial pressure of inert gas, atm

P = total pressure, atm NRe = Reynolds number, gas phase NSc = Schmidt number, gas phase

Note that the group on the left side of Eq. (14-171) is dimension-less. When turbulence promoters are used at the inlet-gas section, an improvement in gas mass-transfer coefficient for absorption of water vapor by sulfuric acid was observed by Greenewalt [Ind. Eng. Chem., 18, 1291 (1926)]. A falling off of the rate of mass transfer below that indicated in Eq. (14-171) was observed by Cogan and Cogan (thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1932) when a calming zone preceded the gas inlet in ammonia absorption (Fig. 14-77).

In work with the hydrogen chloride-air-water system, Dobratz, Moore, Barnard, and Meyer [Chem. Eng. Prog., 49, 611 (1953)] using a cocurrent-flow system found that Kg«G18 (Fig. 14-78) instead of the 0.8 power as indicated by the Gilliland equation. Heat-transfer coefficients were also determined in this study. The radical increase in heat-transfer rate in the range of G = 30 kg/(sm2) [20,000 lb/(hft2)] was similar to that observed by Tepe and Mueller [Chem. Eng. Prog., 43, 267 (1947)] in condensation inside tubes.

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