* Includes Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas.

* Includes Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas.

is not even so simple as in hardwood distillation, since there is a much wider variation in design of distillation apparatus in the former industry. About the only safe distinction between these two terms is to call hand-loaded apparatus "retorts" and car-loaded apparatus "ovens." If this line of division is made Table 19 is incorrect, since ovens of the same type as those used in Florida are found in Georgia also.

Statistics for. foreign countries are lacking, although Sweden is known to have a considerable wood distillation industry in which softwood is largely used. The other countries around the Baltic Sea also produce large quantities of distillation products, mostly tar, from resinous woods. Much of this tar is made in tar kilns or "pits" without the recovery of other resinous products, and the name "Stockholm tar" applied to this product has become a common name for pine tar in general. Some time ago, "Russian turpentine," a crude destructively distilled wood turpentine, was a common article of commerce, being imported into England in large quantities.

Uses for Resinous Wood Distillation Products

Turpentinç and rosin are very important chemical products with a large number of uses. The largest compilation of these uses is that given by the Leather and Paper Laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry 1 which is reproduced here in complete form. It must be noted, however, that this list was prepared for the standard gum turpentine and rosin obtained from the live tree and that the wood distillation products may not be suitable in all cases. For instance, a turpentine from à destructive distillation process would not be used for phar-

1 Naval Stores Review, Apr» 28, 1917.

niaceutical purposes (except possibly for disinfectants), for the finer grades of varnish, or as a raw material for chemical processes such as the manufacture of artificial, camphor or terpin hydrate. In other cases where a different odor was objectionable the destructive distillation product might not be used. The steam distilled turpentine, however, is being used more and more like the gum turpentine, even in the finer pharmaceutical products.

There are also some uses for gum rosin in which wood rosin has not yet been substituted on account of color or lower melting' point.

These lists are very extensive and many of the uses mentioned are unimportant or are possibilities and not actual commercial operations but they show very strongly the widespread use and great importance of these raw materials. The largest and most important uses of turpentine are as a thinner and solvent for paints, varnishes, fillers, stains, polishes, etc. The largest and most important uses for rosin are as resinates (soaps, driers and size) in plastic compositions, and for rosin distillation products.

Steam distilled pine oil is a commercial product which is fairly new to commerce, and at first it was difficult to find a market for it, but soon many important uses were found for it and for some years it has commanded a higher price than turpentine. When the flotation process for ore concentration was first developed pine oil was found to be a very good flotation oil and for some time it has been con^ sidered almost a standard oil, the tests for new oils being comparisons with pine oil. Its pleasant odor, lack of irritating properties and high germicidal power have resulted in its use for antiseptics and disinfectants. It has very high solvent power for gums and resins so that many uses of this kind have developed. It is used in paints and varnishes to give the surface a "flat" effect. Its pleasant odor combined with solvent action has led to its use where a fairly cheap deodorizer is required in various oily or resinous compositions. It. has recently been used as an ingredient in a denaturing mixture. It also has some chemical uses based on its high terpineol content. Destructively distilled pine oil does not have the finer uses where the pleasant odor is required but it is used largely for such purposes as flotation oils.

Pine tar has been an important commercial product for many years, but the original product was not made by wood distillation in closed vessels heated from the outside. It was made in tar kilns or tar ;pits somewhat after the manner in which charcoal was made without by-product recovery.8 When the first pine tar was produced from closed retorts it was variable in quality and not like the standard "kiln tar " Two kinds of pine tar were, therefore, distinguished in the trade,

* For a detailed discussion of the difference in methods of operating kilns for charcoal production and for tar production Bee Oro Trfikolning, p. i68.

kiln tar and retort tar, and the latter commanded a lower price. The retort tar gradually improved in quality and at one time brought a slightly higher price than the kiln tar. The two are now used practically interchangeably although they are quoted separately.

. Pine tar has a large number of minor uses but probably its largest single use is in the manufacture of cordage. Tarred rope and twine prepared with pine tar are standard cordage for many purposes. Another similar use for pine tar is in the impregnation of hemp fiber for the production of oakum. Tar is also used in paints, stains, and soaps, and for various pharmaceutical preparations such as ointments, cough remedies, hair tonics, and antiseptics.

_ There are various other products of the destructive distillation of pine wood called "tar oil," "pinewood creosote" or various special trade names, which are widely used for flotation oils and for other purposes similar to those mentioned for pine oil and pine tar.

Pinewood charcoal has the same uses as hardwood charcoal although a greater proportion of it is probably used as domestic fuel on account oi the local demands for it for this purpose.

Pinewood pyroligneous acid is not used in the manufacture of acetic acid and wood alcohol, so attempts have been made to sell it without any further refining. Several uses have been developed, such as for isinfectant,.weed killer and raw material for pyrolignite of iron, but much of it is still a waste product.

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