The Red Wine Diet
As noted above, the raw material determines the name of the vinegar (e.g., red wine vinegar, apple cider vinegar, malt vinegar). However, the starting material also has a profound influence on the flavor and overall quality attributes of the vinegar. Although the predominant flavor of all vinegars is due to acetic acid, other flavors, specific to the ethanol source or the means of its manufacture, may also be present. In addition, some vinegars may also contain herbs (e.g., tarragon), added before or after the fermentation.
It is naturally advisable, when using these specialised yeasts, to employ them in musts which will be sympathetic to them, i.e. a Port or Burgundy yeast in a red wine such as elderberry, sloe or damson, and a Champagne yeast in a sparkling wine. The beginner will do best, however, to experiment first with a good general-purpose wine yeast. One can also obtain a fairly good range of yeasts especially suitable for lager, beers and ales.
Organic acids comprise the second most plentiful non-water constituent in must. Although the organic acids are present at relatively modest concentrations, typically ranging from 1 to 2 , their effect on wine quality is extremely im-portant.These acids are responsible for the low and well buffered pH of the must and the wine (usually between 3.0 and 3.5).That wine is so well preserved is due not only to the ethanol and low pH, but also to the presence of organic acids that have powerful antimicrobial activities. At these pH values, pathogenic and other microorganisms are inhibited, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium spp. The exceptions are aciduric and acidophilic organisms such as lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid-producing bacteria, and some fungi and yeast. In addition to antimicrobial effects, low pH also stabilizes the anthocyanins that give red wine its color, inhibits oxidation reactions, and contributes desirable flavor.
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