Chapter Breakdown

Chapter 1 covers atmospheric and vacuum distillation and crude desalting. Chapter 2 covers the refinery hydrotreating processes: naphtha hydrotreating, kerosene hydrotreating, gas oil hydrodesulfurization and atmospheric resid desulfurization. Chapter 3 presents the distillate hydrocracking, mild hydrocracking, and resid hydrocracking processes.

Chapter 4 covers gasoline manufacturing processes: catalytic reforming, alkylation, isomerization, catalytic cracking, and MTBE manufacture. Chapter 5 looks at the manufacture of hydrogen for hydrotreating and hydrocracking process and its recovery from some of the hydrogen-bearing streams coming from these units. Chapter 6 presents refinery residuum processing units, on delayed coking, visbreaking, solvent deasphalting, and bitumen blowing.

Chapter 7 examines treating processes for catalytic cracker light and heavy naphthas and kerosene-type jet fuels. Chapter 8 presents sulfur manufacture and pollution control processes, such as sulfur plant, sulfur tail gas treatment, and stack gas desulfurization.

Chapter 9 examines the refinery water system. This includes treatment of cooling and boiler feedwater, the refinery's oily wastewater, and stripping the refinery's sour water.

Chapter 10 looks at the off-site and utility systems of a refinery. The topics include the tankage requirements for product export and product blending; batch and in-line product blending systems; refinery flare system, including principals of flare system design; the refinery steam system; and liquid and gaseous fuel systems.

Chapter 11 describes the procedures for product blending. Chapter 12 presents the procedure for preparing a refinery material balance using a spreadsheet program. Chapter 13 describes the general principles of building a refinery LP model. Chapter 14 discusses the mechanism of pricing petroleum products, including intermediate streams and products. Chapter 15 describes the concept of a definitive operating plan for the refinery during an operating period.

Chapter 16 shows the methodology behind product allocation in joint-ownership refineries. Chapter 17 explains methods of estimating available tankage capacity as a part of an inventory forecast system in both single- and joint-ownership refineries. Chapter 18 explains how these inventory forecasts are prepared for planning shipment of product in both single-ownership and joint-ownership refineries. Chapter 19 presents procedures for estimating the operating costs of the refinery and, in case of joint-ownership refineries, the allocation of refinery operating costs to the participants.

An appendix explains the organizational structure of joint-ownership refineries and presents an example of a processing agreement among the participants required for operating such a refinery.

We hope this book will serve as a useful tool for both practicing engineers concerned with refinery operational planning as well as for academics.

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