Chapter Iv

Of Brewing.—Processes of brewing—Specific gravity of malt.— Mashing.—Temperature of the water and malt when mixed in the mash-tun—Formula for the calculation of the specific heat of the mixture after mashing.—Worts.—Observations on obtaining the strongest saccharine extract—Heats of the Worts when they flow from the mash—Constituents of wort—specific gravity—Formation of glucosin or starch-sugar.—Boiling the Wort.—Examples of boiling the wort from given quantities of malt—Description of hops—Examples of their use in making Edinburgh Ale—Quantity of hops used with given quantities of malt.—Cooling the Wort.—Description of the coolers—Cooling by evaporation—Table shewing the loss of wort by evaporation during the process of cooling—Temperature of the worts—Methods of reducing the temperature.— Fermentation.—Nature of yeast—Chemical analysis by Westrumb.—Remarks on the fermenting principle—None of the substances found in yeast by Westrumb contain it.—Table of quantities of yeast mixed with wort in the fermenting tun —Appearance of the fermentation of worts after being mixed with yeast—Progress of the fermentation—Increase of temperature.—Tables of temperature during fermentation—Change of temperature—Brewings from raw grain during summer— Time which fermentation lasts—Varies according to the season of the year.—Theory op Fermentation.—Chemical analysis of sugar.—Experiments by Lavoisier and other distinguished chemists—Examination of their analyses—Comparative view of the results.—Liebig's statement of the decomposition of glucosin, or starch-sugar—Experiments by the Author on the decomposition of glucosin or starch-sugar, in nine different brewings made from pure malt—Table of specific gravity of the wort before and after fermentation—Alcohol and carbonic acid evolved—Saccharine matter undefeomposed— Alcohol lost during the distillation—Result of the experiments —Quick and slow process of fermenting wort—Degrees of heats used in the English and Scotch methods of brewing.— Cleansing.—General description of cleansing.—Tables of brewing from different qualities of English and Scotch barley and big, 45-102

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