Figs. 1 and 2, Plates I. and II., explain the arrangement of the utensils and machinery in a porter brewery, on the largest scale; in which, however, it must be observed, that the elevation, fig. 1,' is in a great degree imaginary as to the plane upon which it is taken; but the different vessels are arranged so as to explain their uses most readily, and at the same time to preserve, as nearly as possible, the relative positions which are usually assigned to each in works of this nature.
The malt for, the service of the brewery is stored in vast granaries or malt-lofts, usually situated in the upper part of the buildings. Of these, we have only been able to represent one at A, fig. 1; the others, which are supposed to be on each side of it, cannot be seen in this view. Immediately beneath the granary A is the mill, in the upper floor of which are two pairs of rollers for bruising or crushing the grains of the malt. (An enlarged representation of the rollers is given in Plate III., figs. 3 and 4.) In the floor beneath the rollers are the mill-stones 6 &, where the malt is sometimes ground, instead of the simple bruising which it receives by passing between the rollers.
The malt, when prepared, is conveyed by a trough into a chest d* from which it can be elevated by the action of a spiral screw e (see also Plate III., figs. 5 and 6) into the large chest or bin B, for ground malt, situated immediately over the mashing-tun D. The malt is reserved in the bin till wanted, and it is then let down into the mashing-tun, where the extract is obtained by hot water supplied from the copper G.
The water for the service of the brewery is obtained from the well E, by a lifting-pump, worked by the steam-engine; and the forcing-pipe / of this pump conveys the water up to the large reservoir or waterback F, placed at the top of the engine-house. From this cistern iron pipes are laid to the copper G, and also every part of the establishment, where cold water can be wanted for cleaning and washing the vessels. The copper G can be filled with cold water by only turning a cock; and the water, when boiled therein, is conveyed by the pipe g into the mashing tun D. It is introduced beneath a false bottom, upon which the malt lies, and, rising up through the holes in the false bottom, it extracts the saccharine matter from the malt; a greater or less time being allowed for the infusion, according to circumstances. The instant the water is drawn off from the copper, fresh water must be let into it, in order to be boiled, ready for the second mashing; because the copper must not be left empty for a moment, otherwise the intense heat of the fire would melt the bottom. For the convenience of thus letting down at once as much liquor as will fill the bottom of the copper, a pan or second boiler is placed over the top of the copper, as seen in Plate V., fig. 10; and the steam rising from the copper, communicates a considerable degree of heat to the contents of the pan, without any expense of fuel. This will be more minutely explained hereafter.
During the process of mashing, the malt is agitated in the mash-tun, to expose every part to the action of the water. This is done by a machine contained within the mash-tun, and put in motion by the horizontal shaft H, leading from the mill. The mashing-machine is shewn in Plate IV., fig. 8: When the mashing is finished, the wort or extract is drained down from the malt, into a vessel I, of similar dimensions to the mash-tun, and situated immediately beneath, from which it is called the underback. Here the wort does not remain longer than is necessary to drain off the whole of it from the tun above. It is then pumped up by the three-barrelled pump k, into the pan at the top of the copper, by a pipewhich cannot be seen in the plate.
The wort remains in the copper pan until the water for the succeeding mashes is discharged from the copper. But this waiting is no loss of time, because the heat of the copper, and the steam arising from it, makes the wort, which had become cooler, ready for boiling. The instant the copper is empty, the wort is let down from the pan into the copper, and the second wort is pumped up from the under-back into the copper pan. The proper proportion of hops is thrown into the copper through the near hole, and then the door is shut down, and screwed fast, to keep in the steam, and cause it to rise up through pipes into the pan; and by bubbling up through the wort in the pan, it communicates so much heat that it is soon ready for boiling in its turn; for it is to be observed, that the different worts follow each other through all the different vessels with the greatest regularity, so that there is no loss of time, but every part of the apparatus is constantly employed. When the boiling of the wort has continued a sufficient time to coagulate the grosser part of the extract, and to evaporate part of the water, the contents of the copper are run off through a large cock into the jack-back K, which is a vessel of sufficient dimensions to contain it, and provided with a bottom of cast-iron plates, perforated with small holes, through which the wort drains, and leaves the hops- The hot wort is drawn off from the jackback through the pipe h by the three-barrelled pump, which throws it up to the coolers L, this pump being made with different pipes and cocks of communication, to serve all the purposes of the brewery, except that of raising the cold water from the well. The coolers L are very shallow vessels, built over one another in seve ral stages; and that pari-of the building in which they are contained is built with open lattice-work on all sides, to admit the free current of air. When the wort is sufficiently cooled to be put to the first fermentation, it is conducted in pipes from all the different coolers to the large fermenting-vessel or gyle-tun M, which, with another similar vessel behind it, is of sufficient capacity to contain all the beer of one day's brewings.
When the first fermentation is concluded, the beer is drawn off from the great fermenting-vessel M into the small fermenting-casks or cleansing-vessels N, of which there are a great number in the brewery. They are placed four together, and to each four a common spout is provided, to carry pff the yeast, and conduct it into the troughs u placed beneath. In these cleansing-vessels the beer remains till the fermentation is completed, and it is then put into the store-vats, which are casks or tuns of an immense size, where it is kept till wanted, and is then drawn off into barrels and sent away from the brewery. The store-vats are not represented in the plate, but «re of a conical figure, and of different dimensions, from fifteen to forty feet diameter, and usually twenty feet in depth. The steam-engiqp which puts all the machinery in motion is explained by the figure. On the axis of the large fly-wheel is a bevelled cog-wheel, which turns another similar wheel upon the end of a horizontal shaft, which extends from the engine-house to the great horse-wheel, which it turns by means of a cog-wheel. The horse-wheel puts in motion all the pinions for the mill-stones b b, and also the horizontal axis which works the three-barrelled pump k. ,The rollers a a are turned by a bevelled wheel upon the upper end of the axis of the horse-wheel, which is continued for that purpose; and the horizontal shaft H, for the mashing-engine, is driven by a pair of bevelled wheels. There is likewise a sack-tackle, which is not represented. It is a machine for drawing up the sacks of malt from the court-yard to the highest part of the building, whence the sacks are wheeled on a truck to the malt-loft A, and the contents of the sacks are thrown in.
The horse-wheel is intended to put in horses occasionally, if the steam-engine should fail; but these engines are now brought to such perfection that it is very seldom any accidents occur with them..
Fig. 2, Plate II., is a representation of the fer-menting-house at the brewery of Messrs Whitbread and Company, Chiswell Street, London, which is by far the most complete in its arrangement of any work of the kind, and was erected after the plan of Mr Richardson, who conducts the brewing at those works. The whole of fig. 2 is to be considered as devoted to the same object as the large vessel M and the casks N, fig. 1. In fig. 2, r is the pipe which leads from the different coolers to convey the wort to the great fermenting vessels or squares M, of which there are two, one behind the other; ff represents a part of the great pipe which conveys all the water from the well E, fig. 1, up to the water-cistern F. This pipe is conducted purposely up the wall of the fermenting-house, fig. 2, and has a cock in it, near r, to stop the passage. Just beneath this passage a branch-pipe p proceeds and enters a large pipe xx, which has the former pipe r withinside of it. From the end of the pipe x, nearest to the squares M, another branch n n proceeds, and returns to the original pipe /, with a - cock to regulate it. The object of this arrangement is to make all or any part of the cold water flow through the pipe xx, so as to surround the wort-pipe r, which is only made of thin copper, and lower the temperature of the wort passing through the pipe r, until, by the thermometer, it is found to have the exact temperature which is desirable before it is put to ferment in the great square M. By means of the cocks at n and p, the quantity of cold water which shall pass in contact with the surface of the pipe r can be regulated at pleasure, so as to have a command of the heat of the wort when it enters into the square.
When the first fermentation in the squares M is finished, the beer is drawn off from them by pipes marked v, and conducted by its branches w to the different rows of fermenting-tuns marked NN, which fill all the building. Between every two rows are placed large troughs to contain the yeast which they throw off. The plate shews that the small tuns are all placed on a lower level than the bottom of the great vessels M, so that the beer will flow into them, and, by standing in them all, will fill them to the same level. When they are filled, the commtjnica-tion-cock is shut; but as the working off of the yeast diminishes the quantity of beer in each vessel, it is necessary to fill them up again. For this purpose the two large vats O 0 are filled from the great vessels M before any beer is drawn off into the small casks N, and this quantity of beer is reserved at the higher level for filling up. The two vessels 0 O are in reality placed between the two squares M, but we have been obliged to place them so that they can be seen. Near each filling-up tun o is a cistern t, with a pipe of communication from the tun 0, and this pipe is closed by a float-valve. The small cisterns t have always a communication with the pipes which lead to the small fermenting-vessels N, and therefore the surface of the beer in all the tuns and in the cisterns will always be at the same level; and as this level subsides by the working off of the yeast from the tuns, the float sinks and opens the valve, so as to admit a sufficiency of beer from the filling-up tuns o to restore the surfaces of the beer in all the tuns, and also in the cistern t, to the original level. In order to carry off the yeast which is produced by the fermentation of the beer in the tuns 0 0, an iron dish or vessel is made to float upon the surface of the beer which they contain; and from the centre of this dish a pipe o descends and passes through the bottom of the tun, being filled through a collar of leather so as to be tight, at the same that it is at liberty to slide down as the surface of the beer descends in the tun. The yeast flows over the edge of this dish, and is conveyed down the pipe to a trough beneath.
Beneath the fermenting-house are large arched vaults P, built with stone^and lined with stucco. Into these the beer is let down when sufficiently fermented, and is kept till wanted. These vaults are used at Mr Wkitbread's brewery instead of the great store-vats of which we have before spoken, and are in some respects preferable, because they preserve a great equality of temperature, being beneath the surface of the earth.
Figs. 3 and 4, Plate III., represent the malt-rollers, or machine for bruising the grains of malt. A is the hopper into which the malt is let down from the malt-loft above, and from this the malt is let out gradually through a sluice or gliding-shuttle a, and falls between the rollers B D. These rollers are made of iron, truly cylindrical, and their pivots are received in pieces of brass let into iron frames, which are bolted down to the wooden frame of the machine. A screw E is lapped through the end of each of these iron frames; and by these screws the brasses can be forced forwards, and the rollers made to work closer to each other, so as to bruise the malt in a greater degree. G is the shaft by which one of the rollers is turned, and the other receives its motion by means of a pair of equal cog-wheels H, which are fixed upon the ends of the pivots, at the opposite ends of each of the rollers; d is a small lever, which bears upon .
the teeth of one of these cog-wheels, and is thereby lifted up every time a cog passes. This lever is fixed on the extremity of an axis, which passes across the • wood frame, and in the middle of it has a lever c, fig. 3, bearing up a trough 6, which hangs under the opening of the hopper A. By this means the trough b is constantly jogged, and shakes down the malt regularly from the hopper A, and lets it fall between the rollers: e is a scraper of iron plate, which is always made to bear against the surface of the roller by a weight, to remove the grains which adhere to the roller.
Fig. 5, Plate III., is the screw by which the ground or bruised malt is raised up, or conveyed from one part of the brewery to another. K is an inclined bar or trough, in the centre of which the axis of the screw H is placed ; and the spiral iron plate or worm, which is fixed projecting from the axis* and which forms the screw, is made very nearly to fill the inside of the box. By this means, when the screw is turned round by the wheels E F, or by any other means, it raises up the malt from the box d, and delivers it at the spout G.
The screw is equally applicable for conveying the malt horizontally in the trough k as inclined, and similar machines are employed in various parts of breweries for conveying the malt wherever the situation of the works require.
Fig. 8, Plate IV., is the mashing-machine. WW is the tun, made of wooden staves, hooped together.
In the centre of it rises a perpendicular shaft N N, which is turned slowly round by means of the bevelled wheels KI at the top- R R are two arms projecting from the axis, and supporting the short vertical axis S at the extremities, so that, when the central axis is turned round, it will carry the axle S round the tun in a circle. The axis S is furnished with a number of arms T, which are shewn in fig. 9, and have blades placed obliquely to the plane of their motion. When the axis is turned round these arms agitate the malt in the tun, and give it a constant tendency to rise upwards from the bottom.
The motion of the axis S is produced by a wheel Q on the upper end of it, turned by a wheel P fastened on the lower end of the tube O, which turns freely round upon the central axis N. On the upper end of the same tube 0 is a bevelled wheel M, receiving motion from a wheel L, fixed upon the end of the horizontal axis F, giving motion to the whole machine. This same axis has a pinion G upon it, giving motion to the wheel H, fixed upon the end of a horizontal axle, which, at the opposite end, has a bevelled pinion I, working the wheel K, before mentioned. By this means the rotation of the central axis N will be very slow compared with the motion of the axis S, for the latter will make seventeen or eighteen revolutions on its own axis in the same space of time that it will be carried once round the tun by the motion of the axis N. At the beginning of the operation of mashing, the machine is made to move with a slow motion; but, after having wetted all the malt by one revolution, it is made to revolve quicker. For this purpose the ascending shaft A, which gives motion to the machine, has two bevelled wheels BC fixed upon a tube X, fitted upon the shaft. These wheels actuate the wheels D and E upon the end of the horizontal shaft F; but the distance between the two wheels B and C is such that they cannot be engaged both at once with the wheels D and E; but the tube X, to which they are fixed, is capable of sliding up and down on the axis A sufficiently to bring either wheel B or C into action with its corresponding wheel E or D upon the horizontal shaft; and as the diameters of B E and C D are of very different proportions, the velocity of the motion of the machine can be varied at pleasure by using one or oiher: b and e are two levers, which are forked at the ends, and embrace collars at the ends of the tube X; and the levers being united %by a rod, the handle b gives the means of moving the tube X and its w;heels B C up or down to obtain the action of the different wheels.
Figs. 10 and 11, Plates V. and VI., represent a large close copper. A A is the copper, and B the pan placed over it. The copper has a large tube E rising up from the dome of it, to convey the steam; and from the top of this, four inclined pipes R descend, the ends being immersed beneath the surface of the water or wort contained in the pan. By" this means the steam which rises from the copper issues from the ends of the pipes R, and rises in bubbles through the liquor in the pan, so as to heat it. In the centre of the copper is a perpendicular spindle a, which, at the lower end, has arms d d fixed projecting from it, and is turned round by a cog-wheel b at the upper end. From the arms dd chains are hung in loops, which drag round upon the bottom of the copper when the axis is turned; and this motion stirs up the hops to keep them from burning at the bottom: fg is a chain and roller to draw up the spindle a when the rowser is not wanted ; and ee are iron braces proceeding from the outside of the copper, to retain the axis a firmly in the centre of the copper. D is the waste-pipe for carrying off the steam iijto the chimney when it is not required to heat the liquor in the pan. The copper represented in the drawing is made in the same manner as usual; but the fire is applied beneath it in a manner very different from the common brewing-coppers. The method was devised with a view to the burning or consuming of the smoke, and was employed in the brewery of Messrs Meux and Company, London, about the year 1803.
The fire-place is divided into two by a wall extended beneath the bottom of the boiler, as shewn by Z in the plan, fig. 11, Plate VI, where the dotted circle A represents the bottom of the copper, and the circle X its largest part. The section in fig. 3 shews only one of these fire-places, of which C is the firegrate. The raw coal is not thrown in through the fire-door in the manner of common furnaces, but is put into a narrow inclined box of cast-iron h, built in the brick-work, and shaped like a hopper. The coals contained in this hopper fill it up, and stop the entrance of the air so as to answer the purpose of a door; and the coals at the lowest part or mouth of the hopper are brought into a state of ignition before they are forced forwards into the furnace, which is done by introducing a rake or poker at i, just beneath the lower end of the hopper A, and forcing the coals forwards upon the grate-bars C. Immediately over the hopper A, a narrow passage is left to admit a^stream of fresh air along the top of the hopper to pass over the surface of the fuel which is burning at the lower end of the hopper h. By this means the smoke rising from that portion of fuel is carried forwards over the burning coals upon the grate C, and is thereby consumed. Beyond the grate-bars c, a breast-wall S is erected, to direct the flame upwards against the bottom of- the boiler A, and thence descending under the bottom, the flame is received into the flues, which make each a half turn round the lower part of the copper, as shewn in the plan at 11, and then enter the chimney or perpendicular flue W at the same point; the entrance being regulated by a damper to make the draught more or less intense. There is also a sliding-door or damper E, which closes up the lower part of the chimney ; and. by means of these two dampers the fire under the copper can be regulated to the greatest precision ; for by opening the damper F it admits the cold air to enter immediately into the chimney W, and thus take off the rapidity of the draught; and at the same time, by closing the dampers from the flues into the chimney, the intensity of the draught through the fire is checked, which is very necessary to be done when the contents of the copper are drawn off. Immediately over the fire-grate c; an arch of fire-bricks or stone s is placed beneath the bottom of the copper, to defend it from the intense heat. The chimney is supported on iron columns R R. - Behind the fire-grate c is a cavity r, for the reception of the masses of scoriae which are always formed in so large a fire. They are pushed back off the grate into this receptacle with an iron hook as fast as they accumulate. The bottom of this cavity is formed of sliding iron doors, which can be opened by drawing them out, and in this way the clinkers are discharged; or the whole of. the fire may be driven back off the grate into this cavity, and will then fall through into the ash-pit and be removed from the copper, which is very necessary to be done when the copper is to be cooled, so that men may descend into it to clean out the sediment which is left after boiling the wort. For a more particular description of this method of setting boilers, see Philosophical Magazine, vol. xvii.
Fig. 13, Plate VI., represents one of the sluice-cocks which are used to make the communications of the pipes with the pumps or other parts of the brewery. B B represents the pipe in which the cock is placed. The two parts of this pipe are screwed to the sides of a box C C, in which a slider A rises and falls, and intercepts at pleasure the passage of the pipe. The slider is moved by the rod a, which passes through a stuffing-box in the top, the box which con* tains the slider, and has the rack b fastened to it. The rack is moved by a pinion fixed upon the axis of a handle e, and the rack and pinion is contained in a frame d> which is supported by two pillars. The frame contains & small roller behind the rack, which bears it up towards the pinion, and keeps its teeth up to the teeth of the latter. The slider A is made to fit accurately against the internal surface of the box C, and it is made to bear against this surface by the pressure of a spring, so as to make a perfectly close fitting.
Fig. 12, Plate VI., is a small cock to be placed in the side of the great store-vats, for the purpose of drawing off a small quantity of beer, to taste and try its quality. A is a part of the stave or thickness of the great store-vat; into this the tube B of the cock is fitted, and is held tight in its place by a nut a a screwed on withinside. At the other end of the tube B a plug c is fitted, by grinding it into a cone, and it is kept in by a screw. This plug has a hole up the centre of it, and from this another proceeds sideways, and corresponds with one made through the side of the tube when the cock is openbut when the plug c is turned round, the hole will not coincide, and then the cock will be shut. D is the handle or key of the cock, by which its plug is turned to open or shut it; this handle is put up the bore of the tube (the cover E being first unscrewed and removed), and the end of it is adapted to fit the end of the plug. The handle has a tube or passage bored up it to convey the beer away when it is opened, and from this the passage /, through the handle, leads to draw the beer into a glass or tumbler. The hole in the side of the plug is so arranged, that when the handle is turned into a perpendicular direction with the passage / downwards, the cock will be open. The intention of this contrivance is, that there shall be no considerable projection beyond the surface of the tun ; because it sometimes happens that a great hoop of the tun breaks, and, falling down, its great weight would strike out any cock which had a projection fand if this happened in the night, much beer might be lost before it was discovered. The cock above described being almost wholly within-side, and having scarcely any projection beyond the outside surface of the tun, is secure from this accident. *
Fig. 14, Plate VI., is a small contrivance of a vent peg, to be screwed into the head of a common cask when the beer is to be drawn off from it, and it is necessary to admit some air to allow the beer to flow. A A represents a portion of the head of the cask into which the tube B is screwed. The top of this tube is surrounded by a small cup, from which project the two small handles C C, by which the peg is turned round to screw it into the cask. The cup round the upper part of the tube is filled with water, and into this a small cup D is inverted; in consequence, the air can gain admission into the cask when the pressure within is so far diminished that the air will bubble up through the water, and enter beneath the small cup D.
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