The design of the following observations is to describe, in a plain and concise manner, the practical methods of brewing Scotch and English Ales.
To convert barley into malt, and, by brewing, to extract ardent spirits from it by distillation, or to manufacture the various sorts ef ales, beer, and porter, must be considered complicated processes of chemistry. Each process, indeed, in these arts, is an experiment which turns out successful and profitable in proportion to the skill and economy with which it is conducted, and the brewer and distiller must ever watch each operation with much care and anxiety to produce the best results. To describe the various phenomena which occur in practice,—to demonstrate the theories which govern each operation, and to connect the whole on sound principles of science, is the province of practical che mistry, and those who have the management of maltings, breweries, and distilleries, cannot give too much attention,to this branch of knowledge, which is so intimately connected with their whole operations.
But there are many points in these operations that the eye of science is apt to overlook, and which even practical brewers who have published works on the subject hâve too much neglected; and these are the methods of working the processes, so as to produce malt liquors differing so much in quality and flavour, as to give them a distinctive character in the market of consumpt. Of this description, the kinds of malted liquors that have acquired what may be termed national distinction, are, London porter, Edinburgh and English home-brewed ale,—r-common brewery and victuallers' ales being produced by the same methods of brewing all over England. It is the system of making Edinburgh ale, and the descriptions made generally in England, that will form the subject of this treatise.
, It will readily occur to the reader, that a practical detail of the two methods of brewing, as adopted in England and Scotland, with something like a fair estimate of the advantages arising from working out the system of either country must be desirable. The opportunity too, is favourable. There is neither any danger of getting entangled in questions of science, nor of provoking controversy : all that I shall attempt, is to give that general informa-
tion on the subject, with such observations, derived from practical experience, as may be deemed useful to the operative brewer, in conducting his processes towards obtaining the most beneficial result.
Before entering on these subjects, however, it may be of some importance to take a glance at the progress of the malting and brewery business since the commencement of the laws of excise.
During the reign of Charles I., and the succeeding government of Cromwell, maltings, breweries, and distilleries were greatly increased in England, without any impost on their productions, with the exception of temporary duties, raised by the conflicting parties during the Civil War. Under the councils of Cromwell, the navigation law, which laid the foundation of the future maritime supremacy of Great Britain, was passed. The temporary occupation of Scotland and Ireland, caused that unity of interest in the three kingdoms so favourable for the extension of commerce ; hni the destruction of the Dutch fisheries, and humiliation of that power gave to English enterprise an impetus which promised to develop the resources of the country. The restoration of Charles II. changed the whole aspect of affairs. The nobility had become impoverished,—the crowd of needy adherents who returned with Charles, or rose up to support him when all danger was past, clamoured for money; and the expedient was devised of establishing a permanent Excise, or cutting out a part of the capital of maltsters, brewers, and distil-
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