G

Gas flow rate, lb/h-ft2 (Only in Fig. 8.17, units are lb/s-ft*)

G' Gas flow rate, lb-mole/h

Gf Gas loading factor in the Robbins pressure drop equation, de fined by Eq. (8.14), lb/hr-ftz g Acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/sec2

gc Dimensional constant, 32.2 lb-ft/(lbf-s2)

GPM Liquid load, gpm

H Bed height, feet h Height of packing particle, in h Height of structured packing flow channel <i.e., crimp height), in

Ha Height of gas transfer unit, ft

Hl Height of liquid transfer unit, ft kL Liquid holdup, ft3 liquid/ft3 bed volume

HETP Height equivalent of a theoretical stage, ft

HTU Height of a transfer unit, defined by Eq. (9.9), ft

K1 Fraction of liquid stream on a stage that flows downward

kG Vapor phase mass transfer coefficient, ft/a kL Liquid phase mass transfer coefficient, ft/a kOQ Overall mass transfer coefficient, based on the gas phase, lb-

L Liquid flow rate, lb/h-ft2 (Only in Fig. 8.17, units are lb/s-ft2)

L' Liquid flow rate, lb-mole/h

Lf Liquid loading factor in the Robbins pressure drop equation, defined by Eq. (8.15), Ib/h-ft2

m Slope of the equilibrium curve

MOC Maximum operational capacity, Sec. 8.2.4

MW Molecular weight

MWR Minimum wetting rate, Sec. 8.2.15

N Number of moles transferred per unit volume, lb-mol/h ft3

N' Number of moles transferred, lb-mol/h n Number of theoretical stages in a packed bed nF1 Constant in Billet's flood correlation, given by Eq. (8.4) and

nn Constant in the Strigle HETP rules of thumb, Eq. 9.36, given in Table 9.3

Constant in Billet's load-point correlation, given by Eq. (8.28a) and (8.286)

Np Number of packing particles per unit volume, values listed in

Table 8.2, ft"3

NTU Number of transfer units, defined by Eq. (9.8)

P Pressure, atm p Available perimeter for liquid flow through structured pack ing channel, given by Eq. (9.31), ft/ft2

pT Tower top pressure, mbar

AP Packed-bed specific pressure drop, inches water per foot of packed height

Qmw Minimum wetting rate, gpm/ft2 of tower cross-section area

Re Reynolds number. Different forms used for different correla tions. Given by Eq. (8.8) for Billet's flood and load correlations, by Eq. (8.19) for the Bravo et al. pressure drop correlation, by Eq. (9.17) for the Bravo and Fair efficiency correlation, and by Eq. (9.28) for the Bravo et al. efficiency correlation. Dimensionless

5 Side length of structured packing flow channel, in

Sc Schmidt number. Given by Eqs. (9.20). Dimensionless

Sh^ Vapor phase Sherwood numb* v, given by Eq. (9.27). Dimen sionless

Tl Liquid shear stress number, given by Eq. (8.37)

ueSf Effective gas velocity inside a structured packing flow chan- i nel, defined by Eq. (8.18), ft/s uL Liquid superficial velocity, based on the cross-section area of the empty column, ft/s ul.bfr Effective liquid velocity through structured packing channel, defined by Et, (9.29), ft/s u&Uy Vapor superficial velocity, based on the cross-section area of the empty column, ft/s

V Same as G

V Vapor flow rate, lb-mole/h

WeL Weber number of the liquid. Given by Eq. (9.19), dimensionles x Fraction of the more volatile component in the liquid y Fraction of the more volatile component in vapor y* Equilibrium mole fraction of the more volatile component is the vapor

9.5.2 Greek letters a Relative volatility p Fraction of structured packing surface that is wetted, given by Eq. (9.3X '

T Liquid flow based on perimeter of structured packing channel, given by Eq. (9.30), lb/ft s c Fractional bed voidage. Values listed in Tables 8.1 and 8.2

8 Angle of inclination of the structured packing flow channel from the horizontal. Values listed in Table 8.1, degrees

Viscosity, cP

v Kinematic viscosity, cS

p Density, lb/ft3

o- Surface tension, dyne/cm ac Critical surface tension, dyne/cm, Sec. 9.1.4

<t> Contact angle, shown in Fig. 8.22, degrees

4> Ratio of the density of water to the density of the liquid

9.5.3 Subscripts

0,1,2 Different points along the column height

1,2 Denotes the two parallel columns (Sec. 9.2.2 only)

atm At atmospheric pressure bot At the bottom of the packed bed

D Distillate d Dry (i.e., no liquid flow)

F1 At the flood point

G Gas

H20 Water in Entering the packed bed

L Liquid

Lo At the loading point min Minimum max Maximum

MOC At the maximum operational capacity out Leaving the packed bed pilot Of pilot column prototype Of prototype ref For reference system top At the top of the packed bed

V Vapor

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168. Nutter Engineering Corp., Chem-Pro Bulletin HY-2, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

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172. Mottola, A. C„ and L. L. Feilinger, Chem. Eng. Prog. 74(10), p. 94, 1978.

Chapter 10

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