out method or a homotopy method, Sec. 4.2,10 and 4.2.12.


Specified value.

4.4.4 Superscripts

F Bulk feed to a phase in a nonequilibrium method, Sec. 4.2.13.

I Interface in a nonequilibrium method, Sec. 4.2.13.

T Transpose, mathematical representation of a vector.

L Bulk liquid in a nonequilibrium method, Sec. 4.2.13.

V Bulk vapor in a nonequilibrium method, Sec. 4.2.13.

VV Bulk side product from a phase in a nonequilibrium method, Sec. 4.2.13.

Net energy or mass transferred between bulk phases in a nonequilibrium method, Sec. 4.2,13,

4.5 References

4.5.1 General reviews and surveys

1. Friday, J. R., and B. D. Smith, Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 10, p. 689,1964.

2. Holland C. D., Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. Symp. Ser., 80, p. 15, 1983.

3. Seader, J. D., and Z. M. Kurtyka in R. H. Perry and D. W. Green (eds.), Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

4. Wang, J. C„ and Y. L. Wang, in R. S. H. Mah and W. D. Seider (eds.), Foundations of Computer-Aided Chemical Process Design, vol. II, p. 121, Engineering Foundation, 1981.

5. Chan, W. K., J. F. Boston, and L. B. Evans, Paper presented at AIChE National Meeting, Chicago, III., November, 1990.

6. Humphrey, J. L., R. A. Koort, and A. F. Seibert, Paper presented at AIChE National Meeting, Chicago, 113., November, 1990.

4.5.2 General sources used throughout

7. Holland, C. D,, Fundamentals and Modeling of Separation Processes, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1975.

8. Holland, C. D., Fundamentals of Multicomponent Distillation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981.

9. Holland, C. D., Unsteady State Processes with Applications in Multicomponent Distillation, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1966.

10. Holland, C. D., and A. I. Liapis, Computer Methods for Solving Dynamic Separation Problems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983.

11. King, C. J., Separation Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.

12. Rose, L. M., Distillation Design in Practice, Elsevier, New York, 1985.

13. Henley, E. J., and J. D. Seader, Equilibrium-Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1981.

14. Kister, H. Z„ Distillation Operation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990.

4.5.3 First statement of the general methods

15. Thiele, E. W„ and R. L. Geddes, Ind. Eng. Chem., 25, p. 289, 1933.

16. Lewis, W. K„ and G. L. Matheson, Ind. Eng. Chem., 24, p. 494, 1932.

4.5.4 Early methods for computers

17. Edmister, W. C„ Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 3, p. 165, 1957.

18. Smith, B. D. Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes, McGraw-Hill, 1963.

19. Amundson, N. R„ and A. J. Pontinen, Ind. Eng. Chem., 50, p. 730, 1958.

20. Bonner, J. S„ Am. Pet. Inst., Div. of Refining, 36(3), p. 23, 1956.

21. Donnell, J. W., and K. Turbin, Chem. Eng., 56(7), p. 112, 1951.

22. Rea, H. E., Jr., and D. N. Hanson, Pet. Refiner, 31(11), p. 139, 1952.

23. Greenstadt, J. Y„ Y. Bard, and B. Morse, Ind. Eng. Chem., 50, p. 1944, 1958.

4.5.5 Material balance methods

24. Wang, J. C., and G. E., Henke, Hydrocarb. Proc., 45(B), p. 155, 1966.

25. Boston, J. F., and S. L. Sullivan, Jr., Can. J. Chem. Eng., 50, p. 663, 1972.

4.5.6 Theile-Geddes oriented (including bubble-point) methods

26. Holland, C. D., MuUicomponent Distillation, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1963.

27. Holland, C. D., and G. P. Pendon, Hydrocarb. Proc., 53(7), p. 148, 1974.

28. Hess, F. E., S. E. Gallun, G. W. Besitzen, C. D. Holland, R. McDaniel, and N. J. Tetlow, Hydrocarb. Proc., 56(6), p. 181, 1977.

29. Haas, J. R„ M. A. Gomez, and C. D. Holland, Separation Sei. Tech., 16(1), p. 1. 1981.

30. Billingsley, D. S., Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 16, p. 441, 1970.

31. Lo, C. T„ Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 21, p. 1223, 1975.

32. Tomich, J. F., Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 16, p. 229, 1970.

33. Orbach, O., C. M. Crowe, and A. I. Johnson, Chem. Eng. J., 3, p. 176, 1971.

4.5.7 Sum-rates or absorber-oriented methods

34. Burningham, D. W„ and F. D. Otto, Hydrocarb. Proc., 46(10), p. 163, 1967.

35. Sujata, A. D., Hydrocarb. Proc. Pet. Refiner, 40(12), p. 137, 1961.

36. McNeese, C. R., Chem. Eng. Prog. Sym. Series, 37(58), p. 43, 1962.

37. Boynton, G. W„ Hydrocarb. Proc., 49(1), p. 153, 1970.

38. Holland, C. D., G. P. Pendon, and S. E. Gallun, Hydrocarb. Proc., 54(1), p. 101, 1975.

39. Fonyo, Z., H. Nishimura, and Y. Yamashita, Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs, J., 29, p. 538, 1983.

4.5.8 Global Newton methods

Also called simultaneous-correction methods; both original presentations of a method and variations of that method.

40. Gallun, S. E., and C. D. Holland. Hydrocarb. Proc., 55(1), p. 137, 1976.

41. Ferraris, G. B., Comp. Chem. Eng., 7, p. 73, 1983.

42. Naphtali, L., and D. S. Sandholm, Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 17, p. 148, 1971.

43. Fredenslund, A., J. Gmehling, and P. Rasmussen, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Using VNIF AC, Elsevier, New York, 1977.

44. Hofeling, B. S., and J. D. Seader, Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. J., 24, p. 1131, 1978.

45. Goldstein, R. P., and R. B. Stan field, Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 9, p. 78,

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