Subject Index

This subject index omits names of authors, packings, computer simulators, and the like, which appear in the preceding name index. The most significant page references appear in boldface type.

Absorption efficiency: effect of hole diameter, 390 effect of surface tension, 393 effect of weir height, 389 packing HETP, 533 prediction, trays, 376-378 trays versus packings, 520 Absorption factor, 140, 145, 149-151,

164, 168 Active area (see Bubbling area) Activity coefficient, 7, 10-12, 166, 171, 173

Aeration (see Downcomer aeration; Tray aeration) Aerated pressure drop, trays, 309,

313-318, 351, 518 Almost band algorithm, 171, 172 Angle, structured packings: crimp, 445-448, 534 element rotation, 444-448 to tower axis, 445, 446, 531 Apparent residence time, 290 Aqueous systems, 400, 460, 494, 515-517, 526, 527, 557, 587 Area definitions (tray), 268-270 Average pressure drop (packings), 510, 567

Azeotrope, 14, 15

Backmixing: liquid, 370-373, 382 vapor, 370 Baffles (on trays) 386, 388 Balance point, 310-312 Basic HETP, 546

Batch distillation, 213-257, 460, 519 boilup requirement, 214, 233-239, 249 component balance, 214, 222 constant reflux ratio, 214, 221-227,

233, 238, 250-252 cycle time, 254 distillate, 221, 227, 237, 238 equlibriation, 255 existing system, 215-242 foreruns, 243, 250-256 graphical integration, 216-218, 225,

231, 235-237 holdup, effect of, 239, 519 McCabe-Thiele diagram: constant reflux, 223-225, 251, 252 varying reflux, 228-230, 245-247 mass balance, 214, 221

Batch distillation iCortfJ: minimum reflux, 214, 227, 244 multicomponent, 239, 242-256 new system, 214, 233, 242-256 nondistillable residue, 256 Rayleigh equation, 216, 220 recovery, 238, 239, 519 residue, 214, 227, 233, 238 simple distillation, 215-221, 237, 238 slop (see Tailings) tailings, 238, 243, 253, 256 time requirements, 214, 233-239, 253, 254

varying reflux ratio, 214, 227-235, 238

Bench-scale column, 322, 323 Binary equivalent, 64, 76, 81, 82 Blanking, 308, 321 Blowing (see Excessive entrainment) Breakage, packings, 423, 439, 479 Breaker bar, 307

Bubble-cap trays, 269-261, 263, 266, 267,

279, 298, 313, 378, 386, 387, 521 Bubble point, 11, 13, 39, 63 Bubble-point equation, 142, 145, 152,

153, 154, 164,168 Bubble-point methods, 144, 152, 163, 166, 172, 174, 180, 181, 193, 197, 200, 201 Bubble regime, 322, 406 Bubbling: action, 295, 299, 313, 323, 325, 335, 385

C-factor, 270, 276, 318, 502, 670 Caged valve, 261, 264, 265, 321 Capacity, packings: effect of material, 435-437, 440 effect of type and size, 422-^435,

453-459 maximum operational, 475-477,

489-492, 502, 507, 508 upper limit, 470-477 versus trays, 518-521 (See also Flood-packings) Capacity parameter, 502, 505 Capacity, trays: comparison, 260-263, 266 lower limit (see Excessive weeping) upper limit, 268

Capacity, trays (Cont. I: versus packings, 518-521 (See also Flood trays) Capillary number, 529 Capital cost, 92-96, 88-101, 458, 518 Cartridge trays, 519 Cellular foam regime, 322-324, 406,

408 CPS, 270

Channel model, 499

526, 531, 551 Channeling (see Maldistribution) Chemical reaction, 177, 182,187, 191,

198-200, 520 Choke (see Downcomer choke; Packing, structured: choke) Classical hydraulic model, 267, 268, 322,

323, 327, 328, 333 Cleaning, 519, 520 Clear liquid height: downcomer, 283, 284, 351, 360 froth-to-spray transition, 279, 297 tray, 283, 301-304, 313, 316, 318-321, 334, 373

Clearance under downcomer, 274, 275,

341, 352 Closed balance point, 310-312 Complex columns, 26, 51, 84-59, 71, 113,

124, 137, 154, 196, 199, 520 Component balance, 27, 29, 31, 87, 136, 140-141, 146, 148, 149-152, 153, 156, 161, 162, 164, 167, 168, 170, 176, 178, 179, 181-182, 186, 189-190, 214, 222 Component balance line, 32-39, 41, 47,

51, 54-57, 67-71, 82, 525, 539 Component efficiency, 394-400 Composition: constraint (see Summation equation;

Optimization: constraints) critical (aqueous/organics, packed tower), 515-517 peaks, 63-65, 399 profiles, 62-65, 198, 541, 556, 557 shortcut calculation, 119-123, 126-129 Computer: control, 90, 95, 120, 126-129 minimum reflux by, 103 minimum stages by, 105 optimization by, 101-105 simulation analysis, 79, 81 simulation methods, 135-211 simulation of test results, 400-406 Condenser, 20, 21, 137, 138, 147, 156, 163, 170, 193, 215 air-cooled, 97, 102 partial, 20, 21, 35, 39, 148, 150 refrigerated, 97, 102

Condenser (Coni.l: total, 20, 21, 35, 39, 151, 215 water-cooled, 97,102 Constant composition method, 155 Constant molar overflow, 30-34, 82, 103,

108, 113, 123, 148, 195, 367 Constant reflux ratio: boilup requirement, 214, 233-238 existing systms, 214, 221-227, 233, 238 new systems, 250-252 time requirement, 233-239, 253 Constriction effect, 290, 315 Contact angle, 513-516 Contact time (see Residence time) Continuation methods (see Homotopy methods) Contoured orifice, 307, 312 Convergence criteria (see Solution criteria) Corrosion, 260, 266, 267, 435, 462, 469,

519, 521 Cost:

better purity, 90-92 capital, 92-96, 98-101, 458, 518 compression, 518 operating, 92-101, 518 packing, 423, 439, 441, 462, 463, 469 trays, 260, 263, 266 utility, 92-99, 458, 518 Crimp: angle, 445-448, 534 apex, 445, 448, 451, 452 base length, 445, 446, 531 height, 445—448, 531, 534 side length, 441, 445, 446, 531 Cross flow, 272, 275 Cycle time, batch, 254

dib plots, 77, 79, 82, 83 D/F optimization, 90-95 Data extension: binary to multicomponent efficiency,

395, 398

different process conditions, 400—406 Data interpolation {see Interpolation) Data interpretation, efficiency, 379-382,

401-406 Data scaleup (see Scaleup) Deep pool (see Bubble regime) Derating factor, 288, 291-294, 347, 352,

510, 561-563 Dew point, 11, 13, 39 Dew point equation, 13, 142, 153, 164 Dewetting, 422, 511-517, 521 45° diagonal, 4, 14, 34, 36, 3», 41, 51, 56,

57, 82 Diameter: column, 96, 97, 336, 339, 340, 458, 519, 533, 541, 546, 550, 554, 555, 559, 562, 563, 572

Diameter (Cont.): effect on flow regime, 331 effect on pressure drop, 477 eqivalent, structured packing channel,

447, 531 hole (see Hole diameter) hydraulic, valve, 282 large-diameter tower, 376, 382-389,

405-408, 520, 541, 546, 554 packing particle, 421-424, 427, 460, 478, 511, 526, 533, 541-545, 550, 551, 559

ratio ¡column to packing), 541-545, 551, 554, 555, 564, 566, 569 Diffusion, 367, 394, 396 Diffusional interaction methods, 397, 398 Diffusivity, 375, 392, 394-397 Diffusivity, eddy, 373-375 Distributed component, 62, 77, 110-113 Distribution of: area, around a packing particle, 422, 426-428, 430, 432, 456-458, 526 liquid, grid packings, 468 liquid, multipass trays, 393, 394, 406 liquid, packed columns, 422, 459,

471-475, 479, 520, 521, 537-554 liquid, tray inlet, 385 natural, packed columns, 552 nonkey components, 77, 83, 84, 110-113

quality rating index, packed columns,

548, 549 ratio, multipass trays, 394 vapor, packed columns, 422, 479, 548, 550

(See also Maldistribution) Distributor drip point pattern, 555, 558 Downcomer: aeration, 274, 284-28« aeration factor, 284-287, 362 apron head loss, 283, 318, 351, 352 arc-shaped, 388

backup aerated, 272-275, 283, 284, 351-353

backup flooding, 272-275, 283-287,

291-294, 335, 351-353, 356 bottom area, 341-344 choke flooding, 272-277, 288-294, 335, 354, 459

clear liquid backup, 283, 284, 351, 360 clearance, 274, 275, 341, 352 design chart, 343

entrance flood (see Downcomer choke) flooding, 268, 269, 272-279, 283-294,

335, 351-356, 361 inlet baffle, 388 liquid load definition, 271 liquid mixing, 386, 389 liquid velocity, 274, 275, 285-290 residence time, 288-291, 350, 356

Downcomer (Conf.): seal, 308, 352, 353, 360 sloping, 341

339-344, 361, 385 vapor underflow, 284-286, 318 width, 290, 291, 342-344, 385 Driving force, 368, 394, 524 Drop:

formation, 295, 327, 328 regime (see Spray regime) settling, 276, 480, 488 Dry Murphree efficiency, 370-372 Dry packing, 477, 497-499, 503, 505 Dry packing factor, 498-500, 503, 505 Dry pressure drop, 302, 309-312, 316, 317, 350

Dual flow tray, 280, 262, 266, 267 Dump point, 269, 308, 309, 358

Eddy diffusivity, 373-375 Effective mass transfer area, 629, 531 Effective velocity, 500, 531 Efficiency: multicomponent, 375, 394-400 overall column, 365, 367, 394, 396, 407 packing (see HETP) point, 365-376, 393, 396-398, 407 stage, 23, 51, 140, 143, 144, 145, 153, 185-188

test data interpretation, 379-382,

401—406 thermodynamic, 3 vaporization, 144 (See also Efficiency, tray) Efficiency, tray: comparison, 260-263, 266 effect of:

approach to flood, 372, 375, 405, 408 compositions, 392, 400, 406 diffusivities, 372-376 errors in relative volatility, 379-382,

400-406 flowpath length, 389, 390, 406 flow regime, 335, 375 fractional hole area, 390, 391, 405 hole diameter, 390, 405 liquid entrainment, 349, 370-374, 393

liquid mixing in downcomer, 386, 389

loads, 390-392 maldistribution, 386-389 multipass maldistribution, 393, 394 pressure, 336, 391, 393 reflux ratio, 392, 400, 406, 408 relative volatility, 376-379, 381, 392

surface tension, 375, 392, 393, 400 tray spacing, 374, 406

Efficiency, tray, effect of (Co/it):

vapor entrainment, 336, 375, 393,

400, 406 viscosity, 376-379, 392 weeping, 299, 303, 308, 370-375,

389, 393 weir height, 389, 406-407 empirical prediction, 376-378, 400 interpolation, 378, 379 large-diameter columns, 376, 386-389 Murphree, 51, 52, 143, 144, 186, 186, 366, 367, 370-373, 376, 394-399 pseudo-Murphree, 185, 186 scaleup, 400-408 Stanclart, 365

theoretical models, 370-378, 382, 388, 393, 395, 405 Emulsion regime, 322-336, 370, 389, 406, 519

Emulsion to froth transition, 320, 331,

333, 349, 355 End effects, 556, 557 Energy balance optimization, 93-95, 518

Energy balances, 28, 29, 31, 103, 136, 142-143, 146, 148, 149, 152, 155, 161, 163, 165, 167, 168, 170, 171, 174, 179, 182, 190 Entrainment, 262, 266-271, 274, 277, 282, 294-299, 319, 320, 332, 334, 349, 354, 370-374, 393, 510 calculation, 349-355 excessive, 268, 269, 277, 295, 349 flooding, 268-283, 291-294, 320, 338, 339, 344-348, 354, 355, 360, 361 vapor, 284, 286, 318, 335, 336, 375,

393, 400, 406, 459, 474 versus liquid load minima, 295, 296, 332

Equilibriation, 255 Equilibrium: curve, 5, 6, 34, 41, 47, 51, 67-71, 82,

216, 217, 401-405, 525, 539 equation, 6, 13, 28, 136, 140, 142, 143,

152, 163-165, 167, 182, 190 stage (see Ideal stage) Equilibrium attainment: at condenser, 20 at intereondenser, 23 at a point, 365 at reboiler, 20 on tray, 51, 52, 366 Excessive entrainment, 268, 269, 277, 295, 349

Excessive weeping, 268, 269, 301, 307, 321, 389

F-factor, 270, 276, 313, 314 Falling film number, 513, 514

Feed stage: alternate points, 620 mislocated, 42-46, 77-83, 89, 104, 194 optimum, 42-46, 74-80, 83, 89,

102-104, 118, 119, 539 rigorous simulation, 137, 139, 141, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 161, 194 Fixed valve, 265

Flood-packings, 470-476, 479-491, 502, 562, 565, 572, 585-650 correlation, 479-488, 562, 565, 572 interpolation, 488-491, 502, 562, 565, 585-650

point definition, 475, 476, 489, 588 pressure drop at flood point, 481, 482, 488

safety margin, 607 Flood trays, 268-294, 344, 361 approach to, 344, 372, 376, 405, 408 calculation, 344-348, 354, 355, 361 derating factors, 288, 291-294, 347, 352

downcomer backup, 272-275, 283-287,

291-294, 335, 351-353, 356 downcomer choke, 272-277, 288-294,

335, 354, 459 effect of: bubbling area, 274 downcomer clearance, 274, 275 downcomer top area, 274, 275 fractional hole area, 274, 277, 278,

283, 321 hole diameter, 277, 283 L/V, 273-«78 physical properties, 278 pressure, 273, 274, 278, 361 tray spacing, 274-276, 278, 282, 283,

288, 290 weir height, 274, 276 weir length, 274, 275 froth entrainment, 271-275, 279, 282,

283, 291-294 safety margin, 344

spray entrainment, 271-283, 291-294, 320, 338, 339, 344-348, 354, 355, 360, 361 Flow channel, 445-447, 531 Flow parameter, 271, 278, 279, 298, 309, 320, 332, 333, 459, 480, 483, 489-496, 501, 506, 507 Flow path length, 272, 316, 317, 344,

346, 388, 389 Flow pattern on tray, 382-389, 406-408 Flow profile, packed bed, 537, 542-547,

550, 552, 555 Flow straighteners, 387 Flow regime: bubble, 322, 406 cellular foam, 322-324, 406, 408

Flow regime (Coni.): determination, 332, 333, 349, 365 emulsion, 322-336, 370, 389, 406, 519 flooded, 471-475

froth, 267, 268, 274, 282, 295-298, 317-320, 322-324, 329-335, 370, 375, 389-393, 406, 408 liquid continuous, 470, 475, 495, 497 loading, 470-475, 498 preloading, 470-475, 498, 527 spray, 271, 273, 277, 295-298, 320, 322-326, 329-335, 370, 375, 389-393, 406 turndown maldistribution, 471—474 Foam, 279, 284, 287, 290-294, 323, 336, 439, 459, 479, 508, 519, 561 (See also Cellular foam; Derating factor) Force balance: downcomer backup, 283, 351 entrainment flooding, 276 minimum wetting, 511 packed tower flooding, 480 valve unit, 312 vapor spread in packing, 550 weeping, 299, 301, 304-306 Foreruns, 243, 250-256 Fouling, 260, 266, 267, 290, 421, 423, 441, 461, 463, 468, 509, 519, 520 Fractional hole area, 270, 272, 274, 277-279, 282, 283, 296, 299, 301-305, 308-311, 321, 331, 341, 390-393, 405 Fractionation, defined, 24 Free area (See also Net area), 269 Froth density, tray, 313-320, 329, 373 Froth element, mass transfer, 367, 368 Froth-emulsion transition, 320, 331, 333, 349, 355

Froth entrainment flooding, 271-275,

279, 282, 283, 291-294 Froth flow over weir, 317, 319, 335 Froth height, downcomer, 272-275, 283,

284, 351-353 Froth height, tray, 283, 319, 389, 390, 406

Froth nonuniformity, 323, 385 Froth packed column, 459, 494 Froth regime, 267, 268, 274, 282, 295-298, 317-320, 322-324, 329-335, 370, 375, 389-393, 406, 408 Froth-spray transition, 279, 295, 297,

320, 323, 331, 332, 393 Froth velocity, 316 Fugacity, 6, 7

Gas fraction (see Downcomer aeration;

Tray aeration) Gas recycle (see Entrainment, vapor)

Generalized pressure drop correlation (GPDC), 479-481, 488, 491, 493-497, 501-506, 585 interpolation charts, 482, 488-491,

501-506, 562, 565, 568, 585-650 structured packings chart [GPDC (SP)], 496, 497, 501, 586 Generations of packings, 423-436, 439,

456, 481. 505, 528, 532, 573, 588 Global Newton methods, 144,166-172, 181, 182, 184, 185, 187, 189, 190-192, 193, 194,197, 198, 200 GPDC (see Generalized pressure drop correlation) GPDC(SP) {see Generalized pressure drop correlation, structured packing) Grid packings, 421-423, 463-469, 489, 635-637, 650

H-z diagram, 28, 32 Head loss (see Pressure drop) Heat transfer services, 421, 463, 469 Heavy key, 62-66, 72, 3rt5, 398, 399 Heavy nonkey, «2, 63, 66, 74, 398, 399 Height: column, 97, 463

equivalent of a theoretical plate (see

HETP) over weir, 283, 315, 316 packed bed, 525, 541, 542, 550,

555-569, 564, 566 packing particle, 424, 427, 430 structured packing element, 441, 446 transfer unit, 524 HETP and packing efficiency, 51, 398, 421-433, 523-569 aqueous systems, 460, 514-617, 527,

557, 558 basic, 546 defined, 525 effect of* bed height, 548, 549, 555, 556 diameter, 554, 555 distributor turndown, 471-474, 554

errors in relative volatility, 379-382, 527

lambda, 516, 517, 526 loads, 471-476, 526, 556, 670 maldistribution (see Maldistribution) packing material, 439, 440, 460, 515,

516, 557, 558 packing type and size, 421-435, 453-459, 526, 533-536, 555 pressure, 526, 527, 532-536 reflux subcooling, 535 relative volatility, 460 surface tension, 460, 515-517, 527, 535

HETP and packing efficiency, effect of (Coni.):

underletting, 516-517, 527, 557, 558 viscosity, 460, 527, 533, 535 wetting, 460, 461, 471-474, 511, 515, 531, 532, 557, 558 end effects, 556, 557 wall effects, 555, 558 HTU, versus, 525, 526 interpolation, 536, 537, 568, 653-692 rules of thumb, 532-536, 555, 567-569,

572, 573, 653, 654 small tower, 533, 534, 554, 555, 558 theoretical models, 527-532, 555, 567, 653

tray columns, 525 two liquid phases, 627 (See also Maldistribution) Holdup, liquid, 239, 423, 458, 460, 468, 482, 483, 506, 508-512, 519, 566 batch distillation, 239, 519 effect of packing size, 458, 511, 512 Hole: area, 269

(See also Fractional hole area) diameter, 277, 283, 296, 300, 301, 310,

311, 331, 341, 386, 390, 405 F-factor, 270, 309 Homotopy methods, 145, 169, 183-187,

Hydraulic calculation, 336-363, 560-575

Hydraulic diameter, valve unit, 282 Hydraulic gradient, 283, 316, 317, 388, 389

Hydraulic loads, 336-338 Hydraulic radius, aerated liquid, 316

Ideal gas law, 6

Ideal system, 6, 7, 153, 156, 166,170, 171, 182, 184, 186, 187,191, 197-200, 216, 217 Initialization, 146-148, 156, 162, 164, 166, 169, 175, 178, 181-182, 184-185, 196-197 Inlet weir, 307, 318 Inside-out methods, 145, 161, 172-180,

194-200 Instability: dual flow trays, 260 dumping, 308 Installation: packing, 440, 462, 469, 555 trays, 260, 519 Intercondenser, 22, 23, 53, 55, 81, 148, 194, 520

Interface, 188-190, 368

Interfacial area, 367, 375, 389-392, 474,

528, 529, 532, 547 Interlocking, 422, 428, 430, 432 Intermediate key, 62, 77 Interpolation methods: packing efficiency, 536, 537, 568, 653-692

packing flood, 486-491, 502, 562, 565, 585-650

packing pressure drop, GPDC, 482,

492, 501-506, 568, 585-650 packing pressure drop, Robbins, 492,

503, 504, 506 procedures, 586-588, 653, 654, 670, 671

tray efficiency, 378, 379 Interreboiler, 53, 55, 81, 148, 193, 194, 520

Interrupter bar, 307

Jet flooding (see Entrainment flooding) Jetting action, 295, 323, 325-328

176, 177, 179 Key component, 62-66, 72, 76, 77, 81, 88,

214, 239, 289, 395, 398 Key ratio, 72, 73, 76, 82 Key ratio plot, 72-76, 82, 197

L/V ratio, 34, 39, 228, 386, 390, 394, 526, 537, 541

effect on flooding mechanism, 273, 274

effect on flow regime, 330 packing maldistribution, 537-542, 546, 548, 551-554 LU factorization, 159, 160 Laboratory-scale: column, 405-408 packing, 555 Lambda (X), 367-374, 394, 516, 517, 525, 529

Laminar vapor flow, 517 Large-scale maldistribution, 551-553 Lateral mixing, 537, 541, 542, 546,

nonkey, 62, 63, 66, 74 Limiting nonkey composition, 66, 69, 71 Liquid:

continuous regime, 470, 476, 495, 497 entrainment (see Entrainment) high rates, 272, 274, 327, 328, 331, 369, 385, 393, 406, 423, 428, 448, 455, 459, 474, 476, 494, 498, 504, 520

Liquid (Cont.y. holdup (see Holdup) load, defined, 270, 271 low rates, 260, 263, 268, 271, 276, 295, 327, 331, 384, 455, 461, 468, 520, 521, 542, 557 residence time (see Residence time) spread, 542-547, 551, 552, 555 spreading coefficient, 547 Load(s), 336, 337, 357 Loading point, 470-475, 506, 507, 566 Loading regime, 470-475, 498, 506, 507 Lower-upper factorization, 159, 160

Maintenance: packing, 462, 469 trays, 260, 266, 267 Maldistribution, packings, liquid: composition, profile, 541, 556, 557 effect of: column diameter, 520, 554, 555 column to packing diameter ratio, 541-545, 551, 554, 564, 566, 569

compositions, 539, 541 feed location, 539, 541 gas velocity, 543 liquid rate, 542-545, 551, 555 packing-height, 552, 556, 592 packing type, 542-545 preflooding, 542, 557, 558 reflux, 539, 542 relative volatility, 539, 542 repacking, 542 stages per bed, 548-552, 556 thermal state of feed, 539, 541 effects on HETP, 526, 537-554

pressure drop, 478, 479 empirical prediction, 548, 549 flow profile nonuniformity, 537,

542-547, 551, 552 large-scale, 551-553 lateral mixing effect, 53?, 541, 542,

546, 551-554 liquid spread, 542-547, 551, 552, 555 local L/V effect, 537-542, 546, 548,

551-554 number, 548 random, 551-553 random cell model, 542 random walk model, 542 rigorous model, 541, 546, 548 rivulet model, 542 shortcut model, 537, 541 small-scale, 551-553 turndown, 471-175, 479, 521, 554 wall flow, 541-546, 550-552 zonal, 551-553

zone-stage model, 546-548, 556

Maldistribution, packing, vapor, 479,

517, 543, 548, 550, 554 Maldistribution, trays: dual (low, 260

liquid, 382-390, 406-408, 520 multipass, 393, 394, 406 vapor: cross flow, 272, 275 hydraulic gradients, 316, 388, 389 valve tray turndown, 307, 308 Mass balance, 27-31, 87, 142, 146, 148, 149, 151, 156,162-164, 170,171, 174, 214, 221 Mass transfer: area, effective, 529, 531 coefficient, 189, 191, 367-373, 474,

524, 526-532 drops, 334, 532

effect of surface texture, 447, 532 resistance, 367-373, 392, 394, 528 wetted wall, 555 Material balance (see Mass balance) Material balance optimization, 90-95 Maximum: boiling azeotrope, 14 downcomer velocity, 288-290 loads, 336-338

operational capacity, 475-477, 489-492, 502, 507, 508, 567, 585-650

MERQ equations, 189,190 MESH equations and variables, 136, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 157-158, 166, 167, 171, 172, 174, 175, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186,189, 194, 197 Minimum: boiling azeotrope, 14 downcomer area (width), 290, 291 HETP versus load curve, 471-475 loads, 337, 338, 357 pressure drop, 508, 518 reflux, 47-49, 55, 56, 59, 70-74, 76-79, 97-100,102-106, 108-114,194, 195, 214, 227, 244, 381, 382, 539 stages, 50, 105, 106 stripping, 49, 50 vapor throughput, 321, 517 wetting, 460, 461, 468, 471-474, 509, 511-515, 521, 557, 569 Mixing: curves, 374

downcomer liquid, 386, 389 lateral (see lateral mixing) tray liquid, 20, 22, 366, 369-375,

382-389, 407, 408 tray vapor, 366, 369-375, 386-389

MOC (see Maximum operational capacity) Multicomponent distillation: batch, 239, 242-256 best feed point, 76-82, 102-104, 118, 119

binary equivalent, 64, 76 composition peaks, 63-65, 399

profiles, 62-65, 198 efficiency, 375, 394-400, 525 equilibrium curve, 67—71 Hengstebeck diagram, 64, 67-70, 79 key ratio plots, 72-75, 82 keys, 61-63, 82, 398, 399 minimum reflux, 71-73, 108-114 nonkey distribution, 77, 78 pinch zones, 72-75, 79 retrograde distillation, 74 temperature profile, 63 Mu Hi feed columns, 25, 26, 51, 148, 152 Multipass trays, 387, 393, 394, 406, 520

Narrow boiling mixtures, 142, 148, 153,

156, 165, 186, 199, 200 Negative deviation from ideality, 10-12 Negative efficiency, 399 Negative flows, 175, 196 Negative seal, 352, 353, 360 Negative surface tension systems, 334,

335, 392, 393, 512 Nesting, 422, 427, 432 Net area, 26», 270, 276, 278, 281 Nondistillable residue, 256 Nonequilibrium methods, 145, 187-192, 198-200

Nonideal systems (see Ideal systems) Nonkey component, 62, 63, 66, 71, 74-81, 88, 110-113, 128, 398, 399 distributed, 110

distribution of, 77, 83, 84, 88, 110-113 limiting composition, 66, 69, 71 Nonuniform liquid profile, 542-546 Nonuniform weeping, 299, 306-308, 389 Norm, 158-160, 162, 164 NRTL, 158 NTU, 524

Number of passes, 331, 340, 388, 393,

394, 405, 406 Number of stages, 42, 47, 50, 51, 57, 59, 71, 82, 97, 98, 114-118, 381, 382, 400-406, 525 Number of transfer units, 524

Open balance point, 310-312 Open slot area, 269 Operating costs, 92-101, 518 Operating holdup, 510, 511 Operating lines (see Component balance lines)

Optimization: constraints, 92-95 excess capacity, 361, 518 excess stages, 518 feed (see Feed stage) pressure, 96, 97, 518 process design, 105 product value, 90-94 recovery (material balance; D/F; D vs

seperation (energy balance), 93-95, 518

trays vs packing, 518-521 Orifice equation, 309-312, 318 Oscillation, rigorous calculations, 197 Outlet weir (see Weir) Overall column efficiency, 366, 367, 394,

396, 407 Oxidation, 462, 469, 515, 521

Packings: aerodynamics, 422, 424, 427 aging, 440, 557, 558 aspect ratio, 424, 427, 430 breakage, 423, 439, 479 classification, 421

compared to trays, 517-521, 574, 575 corrosion, 462, 469, 519, 521 cost, 423, 439, 441, 462, 463, 469 damage, abnormal operation, 423, 520

deterioration in service, 423, 436, 439 drainage, 422, 424, 426-428, 431 factor, 434-136, 439, 453-156, 481, 482, 405-497, 502-606, 573, 587-650 factor dry, 498-500, 503, 506 flood (see Flood-packings) flow regimes, 470-475, 495-198, 527 fouling resistance, 423, 441, 461, 463,

468, 519 frothiness, 459, 494 holdup, 423, 458, 460, 468, 482, 483,

506, 508-512, 519, 666 inspection, 462, 521 laboratory size, 555 maintenance, 462, 469 material, 439, 440, 460, 514, 515, 519,

521, 561 objectives, 421-423 pressure drop, 422-427, 430, 441, 447, 458, 463, 468-471, 475-482, 488, 489, 492-50», 518, 567, 586-650 per theoretical stage, 457-459, 463, 518

sensitivity to upsets, 462, 469, 521 sizing, 669-576

Packings (Cont.t: specific surface area, 421-424, 430, 434-436, 440-444, 447, 448, 451, 453-457, 462, 483-487, 514, 515, 526, 529, 530, 534, 573 spread of area, 422, 426-428, 430, 432,

456-458, 526 strength (mechanical), 423, 424, 428, 436, 468

supplier's quote analysis, 559, 560,

572-574 surface treatment, 515 thickness, 462, 469

underwetting, 460, 515-517, 526, 557, 558

vapor disengagement, 422, 423, 459 vapor entrainment, 459, 474 void fraction, 422, 424, 430, 447,

483-187, 508, 519 weight, 423, 508, 520 wetting, 422, 426, 440, 447, 460, 461, 468, 471-475, 511-517, 521, 528, 531, 567, 558, 569 (See also Packings, random; Packings, structured) Packings, random: definition, 421

diameter (of particle), 421-424, 427, 460, 478, 526, 541, 550, 551, 559 generations, 423-436, 439, 456, 481,

505, 528, 532, 573, 588 height, 424, 427, 430 interlocking, 422, 428, 430, 432 nesting, 422, 427, 432 Packings, structured: aqueous systems, 460, 515-517, 526, 527

channel perimeter, 531

526, 531, 551 choke, 459 definition, 421 geometry, 445—447, 531 failures, 459 fires, 462

metallurgy, 462, 521 perforations, 441, 444, 447, 448, 461,

452, 459, 543 sheeting, 448 startup/shutdown, 462 surface, 446-451, 543 Partial condenser, 20, 21, 35, 39, 148, 150 Particle model, 501 Passes, number of, 331, 340, 388, 393,

394, 405, 406 Perfect mixing, tray: liquid, 20, 22, 366, 369-371

Perfect mixing, tray iCont.):

vapor, 366, 369-371, 373, 375, 382, 388 Perforated tray (see Sieve tray) Perforations, structured packings, 441,

444, 447, 448, 451, 452, 459, 543 Perimeter, structured packing channel, 531

Phase diagrams, 11, 15 Phase inversion: packings, 470, 496, 497 trays (see Froth-spray transition) Picket fence weir, 315 Pilot scale columns, 322, 323, 405-407,

477 554—559 Pinch, 42, 44—47, 72-76, 79, 80,104, 194, 197, 386, 401, 404, 406, 637-542, 546, 551-556, 569 maldistribution, 386, 537-542, 546,

551-556 point, 42, 47, 50 tangent, 47, 50, 104 zone, 72-75, 79, 80 Pitch, 341 Plug flow: liquid, 369-376, 382-389, 407, 408 vapor, 369-371, 388, 407 Plugging (see Fouling) Point efficiency, 366-376, 393, 396-398,

407 Positive: deviations from ideality, 10-12 surface tension systems, 334, 335, 392, 393, 511-513 Preflooding, 542, 557, 558 Preloading regime, 470-476, 498, 527 Pressure: effect on: efficiency (tray), 336, 391, 398 entrainment (liquid), 295 flooding, 273, 274, 278 flow regimes, 329, 334 foaming, 284 HETP, 526, 527, 532-536 vapor entrainment, 286 high, 273, 295, 328, 329, 361, 387, 393, 406, 423, 428, 46», 474, 494, 498, 604, 509, 561-563 partial, 6

setting, 96, 97, 518 surges, 462, 521 Pressure drop, packings, 422-427, 430, 441, 447, 458, 463, 468-471, 475-482, 488, 489, 492-509, 518, 567, 585-660 average, 510, 567 correlations, 492-501, 567 dry, 497-499, 503, 505 effect of: breakage, 479

Pressure drop, packings, effect of (Cont.): compression, 479 diameter (column) 477 liquid physical properties, 496, 497, 587

maldistribution, 478 packing technique, 477, 478 pressure drop, 478 static head, 478 at flood point, 481, 482, 488 foaming systems, 479 inherent traps, 477-479, 492, 503-506, 587

interpolation, 482, 492, 501-506, 568,

585-650 at load point, 470, 471, 506 maximum, 475, 508, 509, 563, 566, 568 per theoretical stage, 457-459, 463 vacuum, 509, 518 versus gas rate, 469-471, 497-506 Pressure drop, trays, 263, 266, 274, 283, 291, 299, 309-318, 350, 356, 518 aerated liquid, 309, 313-318, 351, 518 calculation, 350, 356 design criterion, 350 downcomer apron, 283, 318, 351, 352 dry, 302, 309-312, 316, 317, 350, 618 residual, 313, 317 Primary design phase, 259 Process design, 87, 105, 259 Product specification (sec Specification) Product value, 90-96 Pseudo binary efficiency, 395, 396 Pseudo component, 81, 82, 126, 395 Pseudo efficiency, 185, 186 Pseudo relative volatility, 128 Pulsation, 307

Purity specification, 83, 88-91, 146, 147, 168, 177, 166, 193-196, 200

q-line, 36-41, 54-57, 69, 82 Quasi-Newton method, 160, 161, 176, 179

Quote (supplier's), 559, 560, 572-574

Random cells, 542 Random maldistribution, 551-553 Random packings (see Packings, random) Random walk, 542 Rate-based methods, 145, 187-192, 198-200

Reactive distillation, 177, 182, 187, 191,

198-200, 520 Reboiler, 20, 22, 137, 138, 145, 146, 147,

151, 156, 163, 164, 170, 193 Recirculation (tray liquid), 383-387 Recovery, 83, 88, 110, 238, 239 batch, 238, 239,519 optimization, 90-95

Recovery (Cont.)

specification, 88, 91,146, 195 Rectangular valves, 261, 264, 266, 282, 321

145, 146, 367 Recurrence formulas, 151, 152, 159 Redistributor, 541, 546, 564 Reference packing, 587 Reference system, 503, 504 Reflux:

constant ratio {batch distillation), 214,

221-227, 233, 238, 250-252 cost, 98-101, 518 definition, 24, 214 minimum, 47-49, 55, 66, 59, 70-74, 76-79, 97-100,102-106, 108-114, 194, 195, 214, 227, 244, 381, 382, 539

optimum, 56, 94-102, 106 overcoming pinch, 45, 46 ratio, defined, 31 requirement, 93, 96, 97, 518 rigorous stimulation, 137, 138, 146,

153, 156,163, 167, 175, 192-198 -stages relationship, 97, 98, 104, 106, 114-118

total, 49-51, 78, 251, 380, 406, 408 varying ratio (batch distillation), 214, 227-235, 238 Relative volatility, 4-11, 69, 83, 96, 106-110, 113, 173, 215-217, 220, 240-244, 249, 250, 376-382, 400-406, 460, 516, 517, 526, 542 approximation test, 106,107 averaging, 106, 107, 244, 250 constant, 106, 107, 216, 217 effect on efficiency, 376-379, 381 effect on HETP, 516, 526 effect of composition, 10 effect of pressure, temperature, 8, 9 errors, effect on efficiency and HETP,

379-382, 400-405, 527 pseudo, 128

at pseudocritical point, 8 Relaxation methods, 146, 180-183, 197,

198, 200 Repacking, 542 Residence time: downcomer, 288-291 liquid in froth, 369, 373, 406 profile, tray liquid, 384 vapor in froth, 369, 373, 389, 390, 406, 474

Residual pressure drop, 313, 317 Residue, 219, 227, 233, 238 Resistance, mass transfer, 367-373, 392,

394, 528 Retrograde distillation, 74, 76

Rigorous simulation: analysis, 79, 81, 400 HTU versus HETP, 525 methods, 135, 136, 145-148 minimum reflux and stages, 103-105 multicomponent efficiencies, 395, 398 optimization, 101-105 problem setup, 146, 147, 156, 162, 164, 169

Riser, 260 Rivulet model, 542 Round valves, 261, 264, 265, 282 Rules of thumb: downcomer sizing, 287-291 feed point, 76 load point, 507 minimum wetting, 513-515 packing HETP, 532-536, 555, 654 setting pressure, 97

Safety factOTs, 256, 291-294, 344, 372,

375, 379, 405, 408, 507, 531, 559 Sampling, 556-558 Scaleup:

diameter, 405-407, 554, 555, 574, 587

effect of bed height, 556, 587, 671 effect of column to packing diameter ratio, 554, 555, 671 effect of vapor and liquid loads, 556,

557, 670, 671 end effect, 556, 557 flow regime, 405-408 Oldershaw columns, 407, 408 pilot columns, 405-407, 554-556, 654,

670 pressure, 400

process condition, 400-405 system, 400, 408 underwetting effects, 557, 558 wall effects, 406, 408, 477, 555, 558 wetting effects, 557, 558 Seal, 308, 352, 353, 360 Secondary design phase, 259 Separation: ease of, 4, 5, 96 optimization, 93-95, 518 parameter, 90, 93, 106 specification, 87-91, 146, 147, 192-196, 200

Shear stress number, 513 Sheeting, 448

Shortcut methods, 106-129,135, 136, 192

design, 106-119, 123-129 rating, 119-123 Side product, 53, 55, 90, 139, 140, 141, 147, 148, 150, 154, 156, 161, 170, 177, 199, 520

Sieve tray, 260-263, 266-269, 279, 281, 294-304, 308-310, 313, 319, 320, 332, 337-363, 378, 382-386 Simple column, 55, 56,137, 138, 141,

142, 146, 153,199 Simple distillation (batch), 215-221, 237, 238

Simple stage, 137, 138, 141 Simulation (see Rigorous simulation) Simulation correction methods (see

Global Newton methods) Sizing, column, 336-363, 559-575 Slop (see Tailings) Slope:

component balance line, 34, 37, 38, 54, 67

downcomer, 341 q-line, 36-39

ratio, equilibrium curve to component balance, 367-374, 394, 516, 517, 525, 529 Slot, 260, 269, 279, 307 Slot, directional, 388 Small-scale maldistribution, 551-553 Solids (see Fouling) Solution criteria, 146, 148-149, 156,

158-159,162, 164, 168, 176 Specific surface area, 421-424, 430, 434-436, 440-444, 447, 448, 451. 453-457, 462, 483-487, 514, 515, 526, 529, 530, 534, 573 Specification: boilup ratio, 147, 163, 200 complex column, 147, 193, 194, 200 flexibility, 171, 175, 177, 193, 194, 200

193-196, 200 inconsistent, 147, 194 internal flow, 90, 147, 177 physical property, 89, 146, 193 product flow, 88,146,147, 156,

193-196, 200 purity, 83, 88-91, 146, 147, 168, 177,

186, 193-196, 200 recovery, 88, 91, 146, 195 reflux, 147, 156, 163,192-196, 200 separation, 87-91, 146, 147, 192-196, 200

side product, 90, 147, 156, 170, 200 temperature, 147, 177, 193-196, 200

Spray:

entrainment flooding, 271-283,

291-294, 320, 338, 339, 344-348, 354, 355, 360, 361 -froth transition, 279, 295, 297, 320,

323, 331, 332, 393 partially developed region, 295

Spray (ConL): regime, 271, 273, 277, 295-298, 320, 322-326, 329-335, 370, 375, 389-393, 406 Spread (see Liquid spread; Vapor spread) Stability diagram, 268, 269 Stage(s): efficiency (see Efficiency) feed (see Feed stage) ideal, 20-23, 140, 143, 145. 188, 191 minimum, 50, 105, 106 number (see Number of stages) per packed bed, 448-451, 456 -reflux relationship, 97, 98, 104, 105, 114-118

Stagnant regions (tray), 291, 370,

382-389, 406, 407 Stagnation point, 383, 497 Startup stability diagram, 308 Static: head, vapor, 478 holdup, 510 Stripping, 23-26, 29, 34, 39, 50, 54, 66, 124, 145, 146, 367 factor, 141, 145, 164,168,178, 179, 196, 197

(See also Lambda. Lambda is not identical to strippng factor.) minimum, 50 ratio, 31, 50 Subcooled feed, 39, 139 Sum-rates methods, 144, 161-163, 166,

172, 174, 176,180, 181, 193, 201 Summation equation, 136, 140, 142,149,

152, 162-164,170, 171 Superheated feed, 39, 139 Surface area (see Specific surface area) Surface structured packings, 446-451, 453-456

Surface tension, 278, 279, 296, 301, 302, 313, 317, 323, 375, 392, 393, 459, 460, 511-517, 528, 530, 535 gradient, 334, 335, 392, 393, 400,

511, 515, 516, 532 negative, 334, 335, 392, 393, 512 neutral, 334, 335, 512 positive, 334, 335, 392, 393, 511-513 Surface treatment, 515 System factor, 291-294 (See also Derating factor)

T-x diagram, 11, 13 Tailings, 238, 243, 253, 256 Tangent pinch, 47, 50, 104 Theoretical stage (see Ideal stage) Theta method, 152-156 Thermal condition of feed, 37-3», 95, 539 Thermodynamic efficiency, 3 Thermodynamic homotopy, 186, 187

Thickness: of grid packings, 469 of structured packings, 462 of tray, 301, 310, 311, 341, 462 Tilt, tray, 385, 389

Time, batch distillation, 214, 233-239,

253, 254 Time step, relaxation, 182 Total condenser, 20, 21, 35, 39, 151, 215 Total material balance (see Mass balance)

523, 524, 529, 548 Transition: aqueous to organic system, 460 froth to emulsion regime, 320, 331,

333, 349, 355 froth to partially developed spray, 295

froth to spray regime, 279, 295, 297,

320, 323, 331, 332, 393 liquid to vapor continuous, 470, 495, 497

preloading to loading regime, 470-475, 506, 507, 566

Tray: area calculation, 358 area definition, 268-270 aeration factor, 313, 314 baffles, 386, 388

classical hydraulic model, 267, 268,

322, 323, 327, 328, 333 clear liquid height, 283, 301, 303, 304,

313, 316, 318-321, 324 common types, 260-267 compared to packings, 517-521, 574, 575

cost, 260, 263,166 dispersion profiles, 329 dual flow, 260, 262, 266, 267 efficiency (see Efficiency) flooding (see Flooding, trays) friction factor, 317

froth densit". 313, 314, 316, 318-320, 329

froth height, 283, 319 installation, 260 liquid load, 270, 271 maintenance, 260, 266, 267 sieve, 260-263, 266-269, 279, 281, 294-304, 308-310, 313, 319, 320, 332, 337-363, 378, 382-386 sizing, 336, 363 slots, directional, 388

Tray (Cant.): spacing, 274-276, 278, 282, 283, 288, 290, 296, 331, 334, 340, 374, 386, 406, 525 stability diagram, 268, 269 thickness, 301, 310, 311, 341, 462 tilt, 385, 389

304-312, 314, 320, 332, 333, 361, 378, 386, 387, 521 vapor load definition, 268, 270 Tridiagonal matrix method, 149-152, 161, 162, 164, 166, 168, 176, 178, 179, 180 True residence time, 290 Turndown: bubble-cap trays, 263, 266, 521 calculation, 357-360 distributor, 471, 554 dual flow trays, 260, 262, 266 packings, 461, 468, 471, 521, 569 ratio, defined, 321 sieve trays, 262, 266, 321, 357-360 valve trays, 263, 266, 306, 321, 322, 521

Two-film theory, 367-372, 528, 529, 532

Two liquid phases, 177, 191, 527 2N Newton methods, 144, 163-165, 166,

167, 172, 180, 193, 197-201 2N Newton-Raphson methods, 164, 165 Two-pass trays, 340-36D, 385, 390, 393

U-shaped flow profile, 382-386 Uncaged valve, 261, 264, 265 Underwetting, 460, 515-517, 526, 557, 558

UNI QAC, 158

Utility cost, 92-99, 458, 518

Vacuum. 96, 97, 273, 295, 327, 329, 387, 388, 441, 458, 478, 495, 498, 508, 509, 513, 518, 527, 533-535, 559 Value, product, 90-95 Valve tray, 261-267, 269, 279-282, 304-312, 314, 320, 332, 333, 361, 378, 386, 387, 521 Valve unit: caged, 261, 264, 265, 321 contoured orifice, 307, 312 density, 308 disk, 261 fixed, 265

high-turn down, 321

hydraulic diameter, 282

rectangular, 261, 264, 265, 282, 321

Valve unit (Cont.Y. two-valve weights, 305, 306, 310 venturi, 307, 312 weight, 307, 308, 312 Vapor:

continuous regime (packings), 470,

495, 497 cross flow, 272, 275 entrainment, 284, 286, 318, 335, 336,

375, 393, 400, 406, 459, 474 load, defined, 268, 270 maldistribution (see Maldistribution) minimum, 321, 517 pressure, 6-9

residence time (see Residence time) spread, 548, 550 Vaporization efficiency, 144 Varying reflux ratio: boilup requirment, 233-239 existing system, 214, 227-235 new system, 245-249, 253, 254 time requirement, 233-239, 253, 254

Venturi valve, 307, 312

511, 513, 533, 535 VLE (see Relative volatility) VLOAD, 270

Void fraction, 422, 424, 430, 447,

483-487, 508, 519 Vortex, vapor, 550

Wall effects, 406, 408, 477, 555, 558 Wall flow, 541-546, 550-552 Wall wiper, 543, 546 Weep, 260, 268, 269, 299-307, 319, 320, 357-361, 370-375, 389, 393 calculation, 357-360 fraction, 304, 319, 320, 359 point, 268, 269, 299, 301, 306, 307, 357

rate, 302-304, 308, 359, 361 Weight of packing, 423, 508, 520 Weir: circular, 316

constriction effect, 290, 315 height, 274, 275, 283, 296, 299, 301, 302, 307-309, 317, 322, 331, 334, 341, 352, 385, 388, 389, 393, 405—407 inlet, 307, 318

342-344, 393 notched, 315, 316 picket fence, 315 swept-back, 347 Wet packing installation, 477 Wet pressure drop, 309, 313-518, 351, 518

Wetting of packing surfaces, 422, 426, 440, 447, 460, 461, 468, 471-475, 511-517, 521, 528, 531, 557, 558, 569

aqueous systems, 460, 515, 557 effect of:

geometry, 422, 426, 511, 513-515 matrial, 440, 511, 513-515 oxidation, 515

physical properties, 511, 513 surface texture, 447, 531 surface treatment, 514, 515 vapor rate, 511, 613 grids, 468

structured packing, 461, 515, 531 Wide boiling range, 142, 148, 162, 161, 163, 165, 186, 199, 200

Wire-mesh packings, 421, 441-444, 457, 461, 472-474

x-y diagram, 4, 11, 28, 51, 64, 79-82, 192-197 adjusting for heat effects, 32 analytical (Smoker), 123-126 analyzing packing maldistribution, 537-540

analyzing rigorous simulation, 79, 81, 192-197

(See also McCabe-Thiele diagram; Hengstebeck diagram in Name Index)

Zonal maldistribution, 551-553 Zone-stage model, 546-548, 556

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