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A number of detergents will damage the lipoproteins of the microbial cell membrane and lead to release of intracellular components. The compounds which can be used for this purpose include quaternary ammonium compounds, sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100. Unfortunately, the detergents may cause some protein denaturation and may need to be removed before further purification stages can be undertaken. Pullulanase is an enzyme which is bound to the outer membrane of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The cells were suspended in pH 7.8 buffer and 1 sodium cholate was added. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour to solubilize most of the enzyme (Kroner et al., 1978). The use of Triton X-100 in combination with guanidine-HCl is widely and effectively used for the release of cellular protein (Naglak and Wang, 1992 Hettwer and Wang, 1989), Hettwer and Wang obtaining greater than 75 protein release in less than one hour from Escherichia coli under fermentation conditions.
A much more serious problem is the purification of an antibody with limited solubility. A wide variety of additives can potentially be used for solubilization of antibodies, including urea, guanidine HCl, detergents, and sugars. Needless to say, there is the potential for these agents to interfere with purification steps as well. Thus, solution of this problem tends to require rather extensive development (48).
There are a number of inhibitors for the yogurt culture that can impede or slow down lactose fermentation. Some of these are listed here for further details, refer to (5,20,27,53). These are heat-sensitive lactenins, lactoperoxidase thiocyanate hydrogen peroxide (LPS), agglutinins, mastitic milk, antibiotic residues, hydrogen peroxide, detergents and santizer residues, and bacteriophages. Many of the inhibitors mentioned here may be seasonal and sporadic or accidental. Bacteriophages, on the other hand, are pernicious and can be devastating if not managed properly.
These compounds are corrosive to concrete, most metals, and fabrics. Strongly acid cleaners are used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale frequently found on steam-producing equipment, boilers, and some processing equipment. Strongly acid compounds used for cleaning operations in meat and poultry plants include hydrochloric (muriatic), hydrofluoric, sulfamic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids. Nitric and sulfuric acids are not used in manual cleaners because of their corrosive properties. Corrosion inhibitors such as potassium chromate for nitric acid solutions or butylamine for HCI detergents may be added. Phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid both clean and brighten certain metals. However, hydrofluoric acid is corrosive to stainless steel and dangerous to handle because of the tendency toward hydrogen evolution during use. Phosphoric acid is widely used in the United States. It is relatively low in corrosive properties, compatible with many...
Place the programmer dial at the start of the cycle and push the ''On'' and '' Run'' selector buttons. The drum programmer will automatically select the wash time and water temperature. Cleansing compounds are dispensed into the wash cycle immediately. Many detergents are available for this application. An example would be the mixture of 1 kg of a commercial laundry compound and 0.25 kg of chlorine bleach per 65 kg of dry weight load. Bleach should not be used when washing gloves.
The world annual sales for industrial enzymes was recently valued at 1 billion, with strong growth in the paper, textiles, and waste treatment markets. Three-quarters of the market is for enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of natural polymers, including proteolytic enzymes used in the detergents, dairy, and leather industries and carbo-hydrases used in the baking, brewing, distilling, starch, and textile industries. About two-thirds of these enzymes are produced by fermentation from Bacillus species, the main producers, together with their products and activities, are listed in Table 1. Alkaline proteases are the single largest enzyme market and are used extensively as additives to detergents. They are relatively nonspecific endoproteases that convert substrate proteins into small, readily soluble fragments. The two main proprietary products, subtilisin Novo (BPN') from B. amyloliquefaciens and subtilisin Carlsberg from B. licheniformis, have been the subject of extensive develop-...
Bacillus species have been used extensively in the fermentation industry for the production of a range of products including enzymes, fine biochemicals, antibiotics, and insecticides. In addition, a strain of B. subtilis is used for the fermentation of soybeans to Natto, an extensively consumed ( 108 kg annum) traditional Japanese food product. In a review of the safety of B. subtilis and B. amylo-liquefaciens (these strains were considered to be synonymous up to 1973 100 ), no reports were found of infection or toxicity relating to B. amyloliquefaciens. In the case of B. subtilis, the situation was complicated by the fact that before about 1970 diagnostic laboratories did not distinguish between B. cereus and B. subtilis. Virtually all reports of putative B. subtilis infections since that time either were associated with drug abuse or occurred in patients whose immune system had been compromised by treatment with immunosuppressants or chemotherapeutic agents. This low incidence of...
During immersion washing, the dirt that adheres to the vegetable surface are softened and eliminated together with stones, sand, and other abrasive material, which can damage the equipment during further operations. The immersion tanks are made of metal, mortar, or building materials suitable for easy cleaning and disinfections. In order to improve the washing efficiency, stirring is provided. Detergents or chlorine is also added to decrease the microbial load. During spray drying, vegetables are exposed to pressurized water, which is applied when the water supply is restricted.
Solvents are compounds that are essentially neutral in character and comprise organic alcohols and ketones. The major solvent products of microbial carbohydrate catabo-lism include ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, butanol, ace-toin, 1,3-propanediol, and butanediol. These are the most useful oxychemicals produced by fermentation. Solvents have various uses in the chemical industry, including the direct use as organic chemicals and indirect use as fuel additives, extenders, or feedstocks for further chemical synthesis. Butanol is primarily used as a feedstock chemical in the manufacture of lacquers, rayon, plasticizers, coatings, detergents, and brake fluids. It can also be used as a solvent for fats, waxes, resins, shellac, and varnish. In addition, butanol may also be used as an extractant and solvent in the food industry.
Alkaline (sodium hydroxide at 2-5 acid w v) based detergents are accepted as offering superior cleaning and greater biocidal activity than acid-based approaches. Alkaline detergents are typically used in high-soil process areas (brewhouse, fermenter and conditioning maturation). Acid detergents are less favoured but find application in cleaning low-soil areas such as bright beer tanks, packaging lines. A variety of acids are used including phosphoric or, more effectively, a blend of phosphoric with nitric acid. Acid detergents are less effective detergents than caustic-based approaches. Although effective against bacteria, acid detergents have little biocidal activity with yeast (cf. acid washing). Routinely, acid detergents have been used to periodically remove 'scale' that accumulates over time with alkaline detergents. 'Hard' water scale originates from the precipitation of calcium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide under alkaline (detergent) conditions or at high...
It is common practice to use carbohydrates as the carbon source in microbial fermentation processes. The most widely available carbohydrate is starch obtained from maize grain. It is also obtained from other cereals, potatoes and cassava. Analysis data for these substrates can be obtained from Atkinson and Mavituna (1991a). Maize and other cereals may also be used directly in a partially ground state, e.g. maize chips. Starch may also be readily hydrolysed by dilute acids and enzymes to give a variety of glucose preparations (solids and syrups). Hydrolysed cassava starch is used as a major carbon source for glutamic acid production in Japan (Minoda, 1986). Syrups produced by acid hydrolysis may also contain toxic products which may make them unsuitable for particular processes.
Descriptions of the use of enzymes in fermentation, diagnostics, baking, brewing, cheese manufacturing, chemical biotransformation, detergents, effluent and waste treatment, leather, textile, starch conversion, and the like are presented in Godfrey and West's Industrial Enzymol-ogy (26). This work also gives detailed information on the legislation and regulation of commercial enzymes, toxico-logical and regulatory considerations, and the scientific and regulatory aspects surrounding the use of genetically engineered production strains (26). The long history of safe use and the GRAS status of A. oryzae and A. niger will ensure that they will remain the species of choice for industrial enzyme production, especially in the food industry.
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