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Perhaps the most common system that has given trouble is base level control via steam. This is particularly true if a thermosyphon reboiler is employed or if the column has valve trays, or both. It is the result of inverse response (see Chapter 13). At low boilup rates, sieve trays give the same trouble. To minimize difficulties the design recommendations of Chapter 16, Section 7, should be followed. One of the authors has shown, in an unpublished study, that an inverse response compensator can be designed and implemented on a computer or with some microprocessor controls.
Inoculated Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli did not grow during barley tempeh fermentation (Swanberg, unpublished), which might be due to the low pH under well-controlled fermentation conditions, as well as to competition from the fast growing R. oligosporus.
Table 5.5 Fermentation cycle times for a high gravity lager performed in 1600 hi vertical or 800 hi horizontal cylindrical vessels (C.A. Boulton & A. Oliver, unpublished data). Table 5.5 Fermentation cycle times for a high gravity lager performed in 1600 hi vertical or 800 hi horizontal cylindrical vessels (C.A. Boulton & A. Oliver, unpublished data).
Acid, one might expect that bacteriophages would not be a serious problem. However, the absence of a heating step for the substrate, the repeated use of the same culture, and the generally open manner in which vinegar fermentations are conducted, certainly provides the right opportunities for phage proliferation. Even submerged fermentations in enclosed stainless steel fermentors do not preclude phage infections, unless pasteurized substrates are used or other phage control measures are applied. Nonetheless, it appears that although phage problems have occasionally been reported, the occurrence is apparently low, and there are only a few published accounts of phage infections in vinegar production facilities (although the incidence of unpublished phage problems may be higher).
Davies et al. (unpublished results) employed homoserine lactone mutants of the classic PAO-1 strain of P. aeruginosa to determine if cell-cell communication plays any role in bacterial biofilm polysaccharide matrix formation. Wild strains and mutants were separately used to inoculate flow cells to observe cell adhesion to surfaces and subsequent formation of biofilms. Cells of the wild-type strain (PAO-1), retaining the ability to secrete homoserine lac-tone, adhered to surfaces avidly and formed complex biofilms comprising discrete microcolonies and well-developed water channels.
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