According to the USA Census Bureau's world population clock, the world population is 6.5 billion in 2006, and will reach 9 billion people in the year 2050. An increased food supply is needed to feed this growing population. To meet the demand, legumes, cereal grains and even some agricultural residues that are presently fed to animals and recovered in the form of milk, eggs, broilers, pork and beef, must be converted to human food. In terms of protein generation, meat production on average requires 11 times more energy than plant production (Pimentel & Pimentel, 2003). Thus, directly converting plant materials to human food would reduce the energy consumed by the agricultural sector. Moreover, increased consumption of vegetarian foods, such as legumes and grains, would lower food costs and promote better health (Marquart et al., 2003). Even in developed western countries, more and more people are adopting vegetarian life styles or increasing the proportion of vegetables in their diet.
Phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) constitutes 1-2 of cereal grains. It acts as the mineral and phosphor reserve of the seedling but is not hydrolyzed by the human digestive system. Although some recent studies suggest phytate to be a beneficial component, an improved bioavailability of minerals like zinc and magnesium would be desirable in strict vegetarian diets that are low in protein. Lactic acid fermentation in sourdough systems and indigenous fermented cereal foods will help in degradation of phytate (22-24).
Records indicate that salted vegetables as a type of macerated vegetable were consumed in Korea as early as the 3rd or 4th century a.d. (6). The first record of kimchi appears in the Koguryojon of China's Weizdongyizhuan region, Samguozhi (a.d. 289). The book states, ''The Koguryo people referring to the Korean people are skilled in making fermented foods such as wine, soybean paste, and salted and fermented fish.'' This passage indicates that fermented foods were widely enjoyed at that time. According to a Korean record, the Samkuksaki, published in a.d. 1145 during the Silla dynasty (about a.d. 720), fermented vegetables were prepared using a stone pickle jar, indicating that these foods were commonly available at that time. During the early Koryo dynasty (a.d. 918-1392), Buddhism accepted vegetarian diets while rejecting meat consumption. The preparation and the use of various added ingredients became more diverse with time. Records show that kimchi was garnished with garlic and...
Vitamin Bi2 is one of the most frequently studied vitamins produced by bacteria. It is normally present in insufficient amounts in vegetarian foods, while it is found in high amounts in animal food sources (Murphy & Allen, 2003). Bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kl. pneumiae spp. ozenae, Kl. terrigena, Kl. planticola and Enterobacter cloacae can produce vitamin B12 during tempeh fermentation (Okada et al., 1985b). Especially Kl. pneumoniae (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes), is considered as being the main species producing vitamin B12 in soybean tempeh (Okada et al., 1985b). It is a common organism on plant materials and can grow rapidly at 37 C and pH 5-7, with an optimum temperature for vitamin Bi2 production at 35 C (Suparmo, 1989). Growth of Kl. pneumoniae does not interfere with the growth of R. oligosporus (Steinkraus et al., 1983). A mixed culture of R. oligosporus and Kl. pneumoniae has been used to produce a tempeh rich in vitamin Bi2 (Suparmo, 1989). Citrobacter...
In Indonesia, where tempeh is consumed on a near-daily basis, spoilage is not much of an issue, provided the product is eaten within a day or two of manufacture. However, the shelf-life of tempeh held at room temperature is very short, owing to the continued growth of the mold and bacteria. Once R. oligosporus begins to sporulate and produce colored sporangia, the product's shelf-life is essentially finished. Even when stored at refrigeration temperatures, mold growth is slowed but not stopped. Therefore, some form of preservation is necessary. In the United States, tempeh is most often vacuum packaged in oxygen impermeable plastic to restrict growth of aerobic fungi and bac-teria.Another effective way to preserve tempeh is freezing, which halts fungal growth. Finally, tempeh can be dehydrated or cooked prior to packaging or made into various processed products, such as vegetarian meat-like foods.
It is remarkable, given the fact that tempeh was not discovered by American consumers until the last twenty to thirty years, that it has become quite popular (relatively speaking) in the United States. Undoubtedly, this sudden popularity is due, in part, to interest in vegetarian cuisine and non-meat alternative food products ( faux meats). However, the popularity of tempeh in the United States may also be due to its nutritional properties. In particular, tempeh is a rich source of protein (19 ) and, in addition, is one of only a few plant-based foods that contains vitamin B12 (discussed below). Since this vitamin is often lacking in vegetarian diets, tempeh serves as a modest source of this essential nutrient (a 100 g serving provide 6 of the 2.4 g of B12 recommended for a healthy adult, according to USDA estimates).
Download Instructions for V3 Plant-based Fitness
There is no place where you can download V3 Plant-based Fitness for free and also you should not channel your time and effort into something illegal.